HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (NO.1 large aperture scintillometer) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)


This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at site No.1 in the flux observation matrix. There were two types of LASs at site No.1: German BLS900 and China zzlas. The observation periods were from 7 June to 19 September, 2012, and 16 June to 19 September, 2012, for the BLS900 and the zzlas, respectively. The north tower is placed with the receiver of BLS900 and the transmitter of zzlas, and the south tower is placed with the transmitter of BLS900 and the receiver of zzlas. The site (north: 100.352° E, 38.884° N; south: 100.351° E, 38.855° N) was located in the Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1552.75 m. The underlying surface between the two towers contains corn, greenhouse, and village. The effective height of the LASs was 33.45 m; the path length was 3256 m. Data were sampled at 1 min intervals.

Raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality-controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The main quality control steps were as follows. (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 was beyond the saturated criterion (Cn2>3.05E-14). (2) Data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS900: Average X Intensity<1000; zzlas: Demod<-40 mv). (3) Data were rejected within 1 h of precipitation. (4) Data were rejected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). The sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining with meteorological data and based on Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.

There were several instructions for the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS900 measurements; missing flux measurements from the BLS900 were filled with measurements from the zzlas. Missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: data/time (yyyy-mm-dd hh:mm:ss), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H_LAS, W/m^2). (3) In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red.

For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.


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Cite as:

LIU Shaomin, LI Xin, XU Ziwei. HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix (NO.1 large aperture scintillometer) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12). National Tibetan Plateau Data Center, 2016. doi: 10.3972/hiwater.102.2013.db. (Download the reference: RIS | Bibtex )

Related Literatures:

1. Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Song, L.S., Zhao, Q.Y., Ge, Y., Xu, T.R., Ma, Y.F., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., Zhang, F. (2016). Upscaling evapotranspiration measurements from multi-site to the satellite pixel scale over heterogeneous land surfaces. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 230-231, 97-113. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2016.04.008.( View Details | Download | Bibtex)

2. Xu, Z.W., Liu, S.M., Li, X., Shi, S.J., Wang, J.M., Zhu, Z.L., Xu, T.R., Wang, W.Z., & Ma, M.G. (2013). Intercomparison of surface energy flux measurement systems used during the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. Journal of Geophysical Research, 118, 13140-13157.( View Details | Download | Bibtex)

Using this data, the data citation is required to be referenced and the related literatures are suggested to be cited.


References literature

1.Xu, Z.W., Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Shi, S.J., Wang, J.M. (2017). Assessment of the energy balance closure under advective conditions and its impact using remote sensing data. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 56, 127-140, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-16-0096.1. (View Details )

2.Li, X., Liu, S.M., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Jin, R., Che, T., Wang, W.Z., Hu, X.L., Xu, Z.W., Wen, J.G., Wang, L.X. (2017). A multiscale dataset for understanding complex eco-hydrological processes in a heterogeneous oasis system. Scientific Data, 4, 170083. doi:10.1038/sdata.2017.83. (View Details | Download )

3.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., Zhang, X., Zhou, J., Li, M.S. (2015). Estimating and Validating Soil Evaporation and Crop Transpiration During the HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 334-338. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2339360. (View Details )

4.Song, L.S., Liu, S.M., William Kustas P, Zhou, J., Ma, Y.F. (2015). Using the Surface Temperature-Albedo Space to Separate Regional Soil and Vegetation Temperatures from ASTER Data. Remote Sensing, 7(5), 5828-5848. doi:10.3390/rs70505828. (View Details )

5.Li, X., Cheng, G.D., Liu, S.M., Xiao, Q., Ma, M.G., Jin, R., Che, T., Liu, Q.H., Wang, W.Z., Qi, Y., Wen, J.G., Li, H.Y., Zhu, G.F., Guo, J.W., Ran, Y.H., Wang, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Zhou, J., Hu, X.L., & Xu, Z.W. (2013). Heihe watershed allied telemetry experimental research (hiwater): scientific objectives and experimental design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 94(8), 1145-1160. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-12-00154.1. (View Details )

6.Zhou, J., Li, M.S., Liu, S.M., Jia, Z.Z., Ma, Y.F. (2015). Validation and performance evaluations of methods for estimating land surface temperatures from ASTER data in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, Northwest China. Remote Sensing, 7, 7126-7156. (View Details )

7.Ge, Y., Liang, Y.Z., Wang, J.H., Zhao, Q.Y., Liu, S.M. (2015). Upscaling sensible heat fluxes with area-to-area regression kriging. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 656-660. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2355871. (View Details )

8.Li, X., Liu, S.M., Ma, M.G., Xiao, Q., Liu, Q.H., & Jin, R., et al. (2012). (2012). Hiwater:an integrated remote sensing experiment on hydrological and ecological processes in the heihe river basin. Advances in Earth Science, 27(5), 481-498. (View Details | Download )

9.Hu, M.G., Wang, J.H., Ge, Y., Liu, M.X., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Xu, T.R. (2015). Scaling Flux Tower Observations of Sensible Heat Flux Using Weighted Area-to-Area Regression Kriging. Atmosphere, 6(8), 1032-1044. (View Details )

10.Xu, T.R., Bateni, S.M., Liang, S.L. (2015). Estimating turbulent heat fluxes with a weak-constraint data assimilation scheme: A case study (HiWATER-MUSOEXE). IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(1), 68-72. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2326180. (View Details )

11.Wang, J.M., Zhuang, J.X., Wang, W.Z., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W. (2015). Assessment of uncertainties in eddy covariance flux measurement based on intensive flux matrix of HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(2), 259-263. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2334703. (View Details )

12.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Wang, W.Z., Bai, J., Jia, Z., Zhu, M., & Wang, J.M. (2011). A comparison of eddy-covariance and large aperture scintillometer measurements with respect to the energy balance closure problem. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 15(4), 1291-1306. doi:10.5194/hess-15-1291-2011. (View Details | Download )

13.Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Zhu, Z.L., Jia, Z.Z., & Zhu, M.J. (2013). Measurements of evapotranspiration from eddy-covariance systems and large aperture scintillometers in the Hai River Basin, China. Journal of Hydrology, 487, 24-38. (View Details | Download )

14.Gao, S.G., Zhu, Z.L., Liu, S.M., Jin, R., Yang, G.C., Tan, L. (2014). Estimating spatial distribution of soil moisture based on Bayesian maximum entropy method with auxiliary data from remote sensing. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 32, 54-66. doi:10.1016/j.jag.2014.03.003. (View Details )

15.Xu, T.R., Liu, S.M., Xu, Z.W., Liang, S.L., Xu, L. (2015). A dual-pass data assimilation scheme for estimating surface fluxes with FY3A-VIRR land surface temperature. Sci. China Earth Sci., 58(2), 211-230, doi: 10.1007/s11430-014-4964-7. (View Details | Download )

16.Li, Y., Sun, R., Liu, S.M. (2014).Vegetation Physiological Parameters Setting in the Simple Biosphere Model 2 (SiB2) for alpine meadows in upper reaches of Heihe River. SCIENCE CHINA, doi:10.1007/s11430-014-4909-1. (View Details )

17.Ma, Y.F., Liu, S.M., Zhang, F., Zhou, J., Jia, Z.Z. (2015). Estimations of regional surface energy fluxes over heterogeneous oasis-desert surfaces in the middle reaches of the Heihe River during HiWATER-MUSOEXE. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(3), 671-675. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2356652. (View Details )

18.Bai, J., Jia, L., Liu, S., Xu, Z., Hu, G., Zhu, M., Song, L. (2015). Characterizing the Footprint of Eddy Covariance System and Large Aperture Scintillometer Measurements to Validate Satellite-Based Surface Fluxes. IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, 12(5), 943-947. doi:10.1109/LGRS.2014.2368580. (View Details )

19.Zhang, L., Sun, R., Xu, Z.W., Qiao, C., Jiang, G.Q. (2015). Diurnal and Seasonal Variations in Carbon Dioxide Exchange in Ecosystems in the Zhangye Oasis Area, Northwest China. PLoS ONE, 10(3). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120660. (View Details )

20.Xu, T., Liu, S., Xu, L., Chen, Y., Jia, Z., Xu, Z., Nielson, J. (2015). Temporal Upscaling and Reconstruction of Thermal Remotely Sensed Instantaneous Evapotranspiration. Remote Sensing. 7(3), 3400-3425. doi:10.3390/rs70303400. (View Details | Download )


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National Natural Science Foundation of China (No:91125002)

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Geographic coverage
East: 100.35 West: 100.35
South: 38.85 North: 38.85
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  • Temporal coverage: 2012-06-07 To 2012-09-19
  • Updated time: 2019-08-07
Contact Information
: LIU Shaomin   LI Xin   XU Ziwei  

Distributor: National Tibetan Plateau Data Center

Email: data@itpcas.ac.cn

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