The “Long-term series of daily global snow depth” was produced using the passive microwave remote sensing data. The temporal range is 1979~2017, and the coverage is the global land. The spatial resolutions is 25,067.53 m and the temporal resolution is daily. A dynamic brightness temperature gradient algorithm was used to derive snow depth. In this algorithm, the spatial and temporal variations of snow characteristics were considered and the spatial and seasonal dynamic relationships between the temperature difference between 18 GHz and 36 GHz and the measured snow depth were established. The long-term sequence of satellite-borne passive microwave brightness temperature data used to derive snow depth came from three sensors (SMMR, SSM/I and SSMI/S), and there is a certain system inconsistency among them. So, the inter-sensor calibration was performed to improve the temporal consistency of these brightness temperature data before snow depth derivation. The accuracy analysis shows that the relative deviation of Eurasia snow depth data is within 30%. The data are stored as a txt file every day, each file is a 1383*586 snow depth matrix, and each snow depth represents a 25,067.53m* 25,067.53m grid. The projection of this data is EASE-Grid, and following is the file header which describes the projection detail. File header: ncols 1383 nrows 586 xllcorner -17334193.54 yllcorner -7344787.75 cellsize 25,067.53 NODATA_value -1
The data set is the meteorological and observational data of hulugou shrub experimental area in the upper reaches of Heihe River, including meteorological data, albedo data and evapotranspiration data under shrubs. 1. Meteorological data: Qilian station longitude: 99 ° 52 ′ E; latitude: 38 ° 15 ′ n; altitude: 3232.3m, scale meteorological data from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Observation items include: temperature, humidity, vapor pressure, net radiation, four component radiation, etc. The data are daily scale data, and the calculation period is 0:00-24:00 2. Albedo: daily surface albedo data from January 1, 2012 to July 3, 2014, including snow and non snow periods. The measuring instrument is the radiation instrument on the 10m gradient tower in hulugou watershed. Among them, the data from August 4 to October 2, 2012 was missing due to instrument circuit problems, and the rest data quality was good 3. Evapotranspiration: surface evapotranspiration data of Four Typical Shrub Communities in hulugou watershed. The observation period is from July 18 to August 5, 2014, which is the daily scale data. The data include precipitation data, evaporation and infiltration data observed by lysimeter. The data set can be used to analyze the evapotranspiration data of alpine shrubs and forests. The evapotranspiration of grassland under canopy was measured by a small lysimeter with a diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm. Two lysimeters were set up in each shrub plot, and one lysimeter was set for each shrub in transplanting experiment. The undisturbed undisturbed soil column with the same height as the barrel is placed in the inner bucket, and the outer bucket is buried in the soil. During the embedding, the outer bucket shall be 0.5-1.0 cm higher than the ground, and the outer edge of the inner barrel shall be designed with a rainproof board about 2.0 cm wide to prevent surface runoff from entering the lysimeter. Lysimeter was set up in the nearby meteorological stations to measure grassland evapotranspiration, and a small lysimeter with an inner diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm was also set up in the sample plot of Picea crassifolia forest to measure the evaporation under the forest. All lysimeters are weighed at 20:00 every day (the electronic balance has a sensing capacity of 1.0 g, which is equivalent to 0.013 mm evaporation). Wind proof treatment should be taken to ensure the accuracy of measurement. Data processing method: evapotranspiration is mainly calculated by mass conservation in lysimeter method. According to the design principle of lysimeter lysimeter, evapotranspiration is mainly determined by the quality difference in two consecutive days. Since it is weighed every day, it is calculated by water balance.
This data includes the distribution along the height of the blowing snow flux collected during the wind-blown snow event at the big winter tree pass observation station (longitude 100 degrees 14 minutes 28 seconds east and latitude 38 degrees 00 minutes 58 seconds north) on December 17, 2013 at solstice on July 9, 2014.
Snow pits were observed daily at Altay base station（lon：88.07、lat: 44.73） from November 27, 2015 to March 26, 2016. Parameters include: snow stratification, stratification thickness, density, particle size, temperature. The frequency of observation was daily. The particle size was observed by a microscope with camera, the density was observed by snowfork, snow shovel and Snow Cone, and the temperature was automatically observed by temperature sensor. The observation time was 8:00-10:100 am local time. The snow particle size is observed according to the natural stratification of snow. The snow particles of each layer are collected, and at least 2 photos are taken. The long axis and short axis of at least 10 groups of particles are measured by corresponding software. Unit: mm. The density was observed at equal intervals, snowfork every 5 cm, snow shovel every 10 cm, snow cone to observe the density of the whole snow layer, and the density of each layer was observed three times. The unit is g / cm3. The height of temperature observation is 0cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 25cm, 35cm, 45cm, 55cm. The recording frequency was once every 1 minute. The unit is OC.
Chinese Cryospheric Information System is a comprehensive information system for the management and analysis of Chinese Cryospheric data. The establishment of Chinese Cryospheric Information System is to meet the needs of earth system science, to provide parameters and validation data for the development of response and feedback model of frozen soil, glacier and snow cover to global change under GIS framework; on the other hand, it is to systemically sort out and rescue valuable cryospheric data, to provide a scientific, efficient and safe management and division for it Analysis tools. The basic datasets of the Tibet Plateau mainly takes the Tibetan Plateau as the research region, ranging from longitude 70 -- 105 ° east and latitude 20 -- 40 ° north, containing the following types of data: 1. Cryosphere data. Includes: Permafrost type (Frozengd), (Fromap); Snow depth distribution (Snowdpt) Quatgla (Quatgla) 2. Natural environment and resources. Includes: Terrain: elevation, elevation zoning, slope, slope direction (DEM); Hydrology: surface water (Stram_line), (Lake); Basic geology: Quatgeo, Hydrogeo; Surface properties: Vegetat; 4. Climate data: temperature, surface temperature, and precipitation. 3. Socio-economic resources (Stations) : distribution of meteorological Stations on the Tibetan Plateau and it surrounding areas. 4. Response model of plateau permafrost to global change (named "Fgmodel"): permafrost distribution data in 2009, 2049 and 2099 were projected. Please refer to the following documents (in Chinese): "Design of Chinese Cryospheric Information System.doc", "Datasheet of Chinese Cryospheric Information System.DOC", "Database of the Tibetan Plateau.DOC" and "Database of the Tibetan Plateau 2.DOC".
Snow is a significant component of the ecosystem and water resources in high-mountain Asia (HMA). Therefore, accurate, continuous, and long-term snow monitoring is indispensable for the water resources management and economic development. The present study improves the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua satellites 8 d (“d” denotes “day”) composite snow cover Collection 6 (C6) products, named MOD10A2.006 (Terra) and MYD10A2.006 (Aqua), for HMA with a multistep approach. The primary purpose of this study was to reduce uncertainty in the Terra–Aqua MODIS snow cover products and generate a combined snow cover product. For reducing underestimation mainly caused by cloud cover, we used seasonal, temporal, and spatial filters. For reducing overestimation caused by MODIS sensors, we combined Terra and Aqua MODIS snow cover products, considering snow only if a pixel represents snow in both the products; otherwise it is classified as no snow, unlike some previous studies which consider snow if any of the Terra or Aqua product identifies snow. Our methodology generates a new product which removes a significant amount of uncertainty in Terra and Aqua MODIS 8 d composite C6 products comprising 46 % overestimation and 3.66 % underestimation, mainly caused by sensor limitations and cloud cover, respectively. The results were validated using Landsat 8 data, both for winter and summer at 20 well-distributed sites in the study area. Our validated adopted methodology improved accuracy by 10 % on average, compared to Landsat data. The final product covers the period from 2002 to 2018, comprising a combination of snow and glaciers created by merging Randolph Glacier Inventory version 6.0 (RGI 6.0) separated as debris-covered and debris-free with the final snow product MOYDGL06*. We have processed approximately 746 images of both Terra and Aqua MODIS snow containing approximately 100 000 satellite individual images. Furthermore, this product can serve as a valuable input dataset for hydrological and glaciological modelling to assess the melt contribution of snow-covered areas. The data, which can be used in various climatological and water-related studies, are available for end users at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.901821 (Muhammad and Thapa, 2019).
Alpine region is an important contributor in riverine and watershed ecosystems, which supplies freshwater and stimulates specific habitats of biodiversity. In parallel, extreme events (such as flood, wildfire, early snowmelt, drought and etc.) and other perturbations may reformat the hydrological processes and eco-functions in the area. It is then critical to advance a predictive understanding of the alpine hydrological processes through data-model integration. However, several formidable challenges, including the cold and harsh climate, high altitude and complex topography, inhibit complete and consistent data collection where/when needed, which hinders the associated development of interdisciplinary research in the alpine region. The current study presents a suite of datasets consisted of long-term hydrometeorological, snow cover and frozen ground data for investigating watershed science and functions from an integrated, distributed and multiscale observation network in the upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in China. Gap-free meteorological and hydrological data were monitored from the observation network connecting a group of automatic meteorological stations (AMSs), wireless sensors network (WSN) and runoff measurement spots. In addition, to capture snow accumulation and ablation processes, with the state-of-the-art techniques and instruments, snow cover properties were collected from a snow observation superstation. High-resolution soil physics datasets were also obtained to capture the freeze-thaw processes from a frozen ground observation superstation. The up-to-date datasets have been released to scientists with multidisciplinary backgrounds (i.e. cryosphere, hydrology, and meteorology) and expected to serve as a testing platform to provide accurate forcing data, validate and evaluate remote sensing data and distributed models to a broader community.
This data is 2002.07.04-2010.12.31 MODIS daily cloudless snow products in the Tibetan Plateau. Due to the snow and cloud reflection characteristics, the use of optical remote sensing to monitor snow is severely disturbed by the weather. This product is based on the most commonly used cloud removal algorithm, using the MODIS daily snow product and passive microwave data AMSR-E snow water equivalent product, and the daily cloudless snow product in the Tibetan Plateau is developed. The accuracy is relatively high. This product has important value for real-time monitoring of snow cover dynamic changes on the Tibetan Plateau. Projection method: Albers Conical Equal Area Datum: D_Krasovsky_1940 Spatial resolution: 500 m Data format: tif Naming rules: maYYMMDD.tif, where ma represents the data name; YY represents the year (01 represents 2001, 02 represents 2002 ...); MM represents the month (01 represents January, 02 represents February ...); DD represents the day (01 Means 1st, 02 means 2nd ...).
This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.
The Tibetan Plateau has an average altitude of over 4000 m and is the region with the highest altitude and the largest snow cover in the middle and low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere regions. Snow cover is the most important underlying surface of the seasonal changes on the Tibetan Plateau and an important composing element of ecological environment. Ice and snow melt water is an important water resource of the plateau and its downstream areas. At the same time, plateau snow, as an important land-surface forcing factor, is closely related to disastrous weather (such as droughts and floods) in East Asia, the South Asian monsoon and in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is an important indicator of short-term climate prediction and one of the most sensitive responses to global climate change. The snow depth refers to the vertical depth from the surface of the snow to the ground. It is an important parameter for snow characteristics and one of the conventional meteorological observation elements. It is the key parameter of snow water equivalent estimation, climate effect studies of snow cover, the basin water balance, the simulation and monitoring of snow-melt, and snow disaster evaluation and grading. In this data set, the Tibetan Plateau boundary was determined by adopting the natural topography as the leading factor and by comprehensive consideration of the principles of altitude, plateau and mountain integrity. The main part of the plateau is in the Tibetan Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province, with an area of 2.572 million square kilometers, accounting for 26.8% of the total land area of China. The snow depth observation data are the monthly maximum snow depth data after quality detection and quality control. There are 102 meteorological stations in the study area, most of which were built during the 1950s to 1970s. The data for some months or years for sites existing during this period were missing, and the complete observational records from 1961 to 2013 were adopted. The temporal resolution is daily, the spatial coverage is the Tibetan Plateau, and all the data were quality controlled. Accurate and detailed plateau snow depth data are of great significance for the diagnosis of climate change, the evolution of the Asian monsoon and the management of regional snow-melt water resources.