This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.
The Tibetan Plateau has an average altitude of over 4000 m and is the region with the highest altitude and the largest snow cover in the middle and low latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere regions. Snow cover is the most important underlying surface of the seasonal changes on the Tibetan Plateau and an important composing element of ecological environment. Ice and snow melt water is an important water resource of the plateau and its downstream areas. At the same time, plateau snow, as an important land-surface forcing factor, is closely related to disastrous weather (such as droughts and floods) in East Asia, the South Asian monsoon and in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. It is an important indicator of short-term climate prediction and one of the most sensitive responses to global climate change. The snow depth refers to the vertical depth from the surface of the snow to the ground. It is an important parameter for snow characteristics and one of the conventional meteorological observation elements. It is the key parameter of snow water equivalent estimation, climate effect studies of snow cover, the basin water balance, the simulation and monitoring of snow-melt, and snow disaster evaluation and grading. In this data set, the Tibetan Plateau boundary was determined by adopting the natural topography as the leading factor and by comprehensive consideration of the principles of altitude, plateau and mountain integrity. The main part of the plateau is in the Tibetan Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province, with an area of 2.572 million square kilometers, accounting for 26.8% of the total land area of China. The snow depth observation data are the monthly maximum snow depth data after quality detection and quality control. There are 102 meteorological stations in the study area, most of which were built during the 1950s to 1970s. The data for some months or years for sites existing during this period were missing, and the complete observational records from 1961 to 2013 were adopted. The temporal resolution is daily, the spatial coverage is the Tibetan Plateau, and all the data were quality controlled. Accurate and detailed plateau snow depth data are of great significance for the diagnosis of climate change, the evolution of the Asian monsoon and the management of regional snow-melt water resources.
As the “water tower of Asia”, Tibetan Plateau (TP) are the resource of major rivers in Asia. Black carbon (BC) aerosol emitted from surrounding regions can be transported to the inner TP by atmospheric circulation and consequently deposited in snow, which can significantly influence precipitation and mass balance of glaciers. By drilling and sampling ice cores and snow samples and measuring BC concentration, historical record and spatial distribution can be abtained. It can provide basic dataset to study the effects of BC to the environment and climate over the Tibetan Plateau, as well as the pollutants transport.
Snow cover dataset is produced by snow and cloud identification method based on optical instrument observation data, covering the time from 1989 to 2018 (two periods, from January to April and from October to December) and the region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (17°N-41°N, 65°E-106°E) with daily product, which takes equal latitude and longitude projection with 0.01°×0.01° spatial resolution, and characterizes whether the ground under clear sky or transparent thin cloud is covered by snow. The input data sources include AVHRR L1 data of NOAA and MetOp serials of satellites, and L1 data corresponding to AVHRR channels taken from TERRA/MODIS. Decision Tree algorithm (DT) with dynamic thresholds is employed independent of cloud mask and its cloud detection emphasizes on reserving snow, particularly under transparency cirrus. It considers a variety of methods for different situations, such as ice-cloud over the water-cloud, snow in forest and sand, thin snow or melting snow, etc. Besides those, setting dynamic threshold based on land-surface type, DEM and season variation, deleting false snow in low latitude forest covered by heavy aerosol or soot, referring to maximum monthly snowlines and minimum snow surface brightness temperature, and optimizing discrimination program, these techniques all contribute to DT. DT discriminates most snow and cloud under normal circumstances, but underestimates snow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in October. Daily product achieves about 95% average coincidence rate of snow and non-snow identification compared to ground-based snow depth observation in years. The dataset is stored in the standard HDF4 files each having two SDSs of snow cover and quality code with the dimensions of 4100-column and 2400-line. Complete attribute descriptions is written in them.
The continuous snow cover area in time and space is one of key elements to study of land surface energy and water exhange, mountain hydrology, land surface model, numerical weather forecast and climate change. However, the large number of clouds causes data gaps in the snow cover area from optical remote sensing. The MODIS observations of Terra and aqua, FY-2E and FY-2F VISSR are used to obtain fractional snow cover (subpixel snow cover) which is less affected by the cloud, and the snow cover of the remaining cloud pixels is supplemented according to the time series information. Finally the cloudless daily snow fraction is obtained. This data set includes the daily fractional snow cover at 5 km spatial resolution in the Tibetan Plateau and China.
Snow water equivalent (the product of snow depth and density) is an important factor reflecting the change in snow cover on the ground surface, and it is also an important parameter in surface hydrological models and climatic models. As the “Headwaters of Asia”, the Tibetan Plateau is the source of several major rivers, which are fed with glacier and snow meltwater. Based on the sensitivity of passive microwave radiation to snow, these monitoring data enable long-term inversion of snow water equivalents in the High Asia region. The data set includes daily snow water equivalent, monthly snow water equivalent and five-day snow water equivalent, and these data can be applied in analyses of local hydrology, animal husbandry production and other fields.
The variation in the duration of snow on the Tibetan Plateau is relatively great, and the high mountainous areas around the plateau are rich in snow and ice resources. Taking full account of the terrain of the Tibetan Plateau and the snow characteristics in the mountains, the data set adopted AVHRR data to gradually realize generating data products for daily, ten-day, and monthly snow cover areas while maintaining the snow classification accuracy. These data included the daily/10-day/monthly snow cover area data for the Tibetan Plateau from 2007 to 2015, the average accuracy of which is 0.92. It can provide reliable data for snow changes during the historical periods of the Tibetan Plateau.
The long-time series data set of snow cover area on the qinghai-tibet plateau is derived from the fusion of MODIS 005 version and IMS data set, andThe cloud-free products of daily snow cover area were obtained by using interpolation de-cloud algorithm.The projection is latitude and longitude, the spatial resolution is 0.005 degrees (about 500m), and the time is a long time series from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2014. Each file is the result of the proportion of snow cover area on that day, and the value is 0-100 (%). It is the ENVI standard file, The naming convention： ims_mts_yyyyddd.tif, where YYYY stands for year and DDD stands for Julian day (001-365/366).Files can be directly used ENVI or ARCMAP software open view. Document description: 200 snow, 100 lake ice, 25 land, 37 sea
The data set is from February 24, 2000 to December 31, 2004, with a resolution of 0.05 degrees, MODIS data, and the data format is .hdf. It can be opened with HDFView. The data quality is good. The missing dates are as follows: 2000 1 -54 132 219-230 303 2001 111 167-182 2002 079-086 099 105 2003 123 324 351-358 2004 219 349 The number after the year is the nth day of the year Pixel values are as follows: 0: Snow-free land 1-100: Percent snow in cell 111: Night 252: Antarctica 253: Data not mapped 254: Open water (ocean) 255: Fill An example of file naming is as follows: Example: "MOD10C1.A2003121.004.2003142152431.hdf" Where: MOD = MODIS / Terra 2003 = Year of data acquisition 121 = Julian date of data acquisition (day 121) 004 = Version of data type (Version 4) 2003 = Year of production (2003) 142 = Julian date of production (day 142) 152431 = Hour / minute / second of production in GMT (15:24:31) The corner coordinates are: Corner Coordinates: Upper Left (70.0000000, 54.0000000) Lower Left (70.0000000, 3.0000000) Upper Right (138.0000000, 54.0000000) Lower Right (138.0000000, 3.0000000) Among them, Upper Left is the upper left corner, Lower Left is the lower left corner, Upper Right is the upper right corner, and Lower Right is the lower right corner. The number of data rows and columns is 1360, 1020 Geographical latitude and longitude coordinates, the specific information is as follows: Coordinate System is: GEOGCS ["Unknown datum based upon the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid", DATUM ["Not specified (based on Clarke 1866 spheroid)", SPHEROID ["Clarke 1866", 6378206.4,294.9786982139006, AUTHORITY ["EPSG", "7008"]]], PRIMEM ["Greenwich", 0], UNIT ["degree", 0.0174532925199433]] Origin = (70.000000000000000, 54.000000000000000)