WATER: Dateset of the ground-based RPG-8CH-DP microwave radiometer observations in the Biandukou foci experimental area

The dateset of the ground-based RPG-8CH-DP microwave radiometer observations was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area from Mar. 14 to 17, 2008. Observation items included the brightness temperature by the ground-based microwave radiometer (18.7GHz and 36.5GHz), the soil temperature by the thermal resistor, the gravimetric soil moisture by the microwave drying method, and the surface roughness by the grid board. The wheat stubble land (38°15'44.13"N, 100°55'35.34"E) was chosen for continuous observations from 11:00 to 24:00 on Mar. 14, with the incidence 20°-70° and the step length 5°. The rape stubble land (38°15'23.17"N, 100°58'37.84"E) was chosen for continuous observations from 10:00 to 21:30 on Mar. 16, with the incidence 20°-70° and the step length 5°. The deep plowed land (38°18'8.28"N, 101° 3'27.22"E) was chosen for short time observations from 17:26 to 19:20 on Mar. 17, with the azimuth angle 240°-300° and the step length 10°, the incidence 40°-70° and the step length 5°. The brightness temperature was archived as .BRT and .txt files (the ASCII format). Each row in .txt was listed by year, month, date, hour, minute, second, 6.925GHz (h), 6.925GHz (v), 10.65GHz (h), 10.65GHz (v) , 18.7GHz (h), 18.7GHz (v), 36.5GHz (h), 36.5GHz (v), the elevation angle, and the azimuth angle. Values for 6.925GHz and 10.65GHz were zero due to malfunction. The roughness data were obtained by the grid board and the camera and the RMS height (cm) and correlation length (cm) were also calculated and archived, which could be opened by Notepad or Microsoft Office Word. Those provide reliable reference for the roughness of the same land cover type. The gravimetric soil moisture (soil samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm) was measured by the microwave drying method. The file can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. The shallow layer soil moisture was measured by hydra prob from 12:00 to 17:00 on 14 and by the Hydra probe (straight downward for 0-5cm) and HH2 (level into the soil surface) on 16. The surface temperature was measured by the thermal resistor. The file can be opened by Microsoft Office Word. Four data files were included, the brightness temperature, the surface temperature, the soil moisture and the surface roughness.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: Dataset of infrared temperature in Zhanye Airport desert

Zhanye Airport desert observation system can offer in situ calibration data for TASI, WiDAS and L band sensor used in aerospace experiment. Observation Site: This point is located in a large, homogeneous and flatten desert near by Zhangye Airport. The main vegetation type is Sparse and low shrub. The coordinates of this site: 38°4′41.30" N, 100°41′48.10" E. Observation Instrument: The observation system consists of two SI-111 infrared radiometers (Campbell, USA), one installed vertically downward to land surface, another face to south of zenith angle 35°. SI-111 sensor installed at 4.0 m height. Observation Time: This site operates from 10 June, 2012 to today. Observation data laagered by every 5 seconds uninterrupted. Output data contained sample data of every 5 seconds and mean data of 1 minute. Accessory data: Land surface infrared temperature (by SI-111), sky infrared temperature (by SI-111) can be obtained. Dataset is stored in *.dat file, which can be read by Microsoft excel or other text processing software (UltraEdit, et. al). Table heads meaning: TarT_Atm, Sky infrared temperature @ facing south of zenith angle 35° (℃); SBT_Atm, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃) measured sky; TarT_Sur, land surface infrared temperature @ 4.0 m height; SBT_Sur, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃) measured land surface. Dataset is stored day by day, named as: data format + site name + interval time + date + time. The detailed information about data item showed in data header introduction in dataset.

0 2019-09-15

Qilian Mountains integrated observatory network: cold and arid research network of Lanzhou university (an observation system of meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station, 2018)

This dataset includes data recorded by the Cold and Arid Research Network of Lanzhou university obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Dunhuang Station from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (93.708° E, 40.348° N) was located on a wetland in the Dunhuang west lake, Gansu Province. The elevation is 990 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (4m and 8 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 4m and 8 m, towards north), air pressure (1 m), rain gauge (4 m), infrared temperature sensors (4 m, towards south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (-0.05 and -0.1m ), soil soil temperature/ moisture/ electrical conductivity profile (below the vegetation in the south of tower, -0.05 and -0.2 m), photosynthetically active radiation (4 m, towards south), four-component radiometer (4 m, towards south), sunshine duration sensor(4 m, towards south). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_4 m, Ta_8 m; RH_2 m, RH_4 m, RH_8 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_4 m, Ws_8 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_4 m, WD_8 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), soil heat flux (Gs_0.05m, Gs_0.1m) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0.05m, Ts_0.2m) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_0.05m, Ms_0.2m) (%, volumetric water content), soil conductivity (Ec_0.05m, Ec_0.2m)(μs/cm), sun time(h). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The data were missing during Jan. 23 to Jan. 24 because of collector failure; the data during Mar. 17 and May 24 were wrong because of the tower body tilt; The air humidity data were rejected due to program error. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30.

0 2019-09-15

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission in the A'rou foci experimental area (Mar. 19, 2008)

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (L&K bands) mission was obtained in L2, L4 and L5 of the A'rou foci experimental area on Mar. 19, 2008. The samples were collected every 100 m along the strip from south to north. In L2, the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity were acquired by the POGO soil sensor, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). In L4, the soil temperature, soil volumetric moisture, the loss tangent, soil conductivity, and the real part and the imaginary part of soil complex permittivity were acquired by the POGO soil sensor, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer, the surface radiative temperature measured three times by the hand-held infrared thermometer, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). In L5, soil volumetric moisture was acquired by ML2X, the mean soil temperature from 0-5cm by the probe thermometer, and soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). Surface roughness was detailed in the "WATER: Surface roughness dataset in the A'rou foci experimental area". Besides, GPR (Ground Penetration Radar) observations were also carried out in L6 and the handheld thermal imager observations in L4. Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture and freeze/thaw status from active remote sensing approaches.

0 2019-09-14

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne imaging spectrometer (OMIS-II) mission in the Linze station foci experimental area on Jun. 15, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne imaging spectrometer (OMIS-II) mission was obtained in the Linze station foci experimental area on Jun. 15, 2008. Observation items included: (1) soil moisture (0-5cm) measured by the cutting ring method (50cm^3) in LY06 and LY07 strips (repeated nine times). The preprocessed soil volumetric moisture data were archived as Excel files. (2) surface radiative temperature measured by three handheld infrared thermometer (5# and 6# from Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, and one from Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, which were all calibrated) in the LY06 and LY07 strips (49 points and repeated three times), and Wulidun farmland quadrates (various points and repeated three times). Data were archived as Excel files. See the metadata record “WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the Linze station foci experimental area” for more information of the quadrate locations.

0 2019-09-14

HiWATER: WATERNET observation dataset in the middle of Heihe River Basin (2012)

This dataset includes soil moisture, soil temperature and land surface temperature observations of 50 WATERNET wireless sensor network (WSN) nodes during the period from May to September 2012, which is one type of WSN nodes in the Heihe eco-hydrological wireless sensor network (WSN). The WATERNET located in the 4×4 MODIS grids in the observation matrix in the Zhangye oasis. Each WATERNET node observes the soil moisture, soil temperature, soil conductivity and complex dielectric constant at 4 cm and 10 cm depths by the Hydra Probe II sensor. There are 29 nodes among the WATERNET with the SI-111 sensor at 4 m height to measure the surface radiance temperature. The operational observation interval is 10 minutes, and the intensive observation mode with 1 minute is activated during 00:00-04:30, 08:00-18:00 and 21:00-24:00 (UTC+8), in order to synchronize with airborne or satellite-borne remote sensors. This dataset can be used in the estimation of surface hydrothermal variables and their validation, eco-hydrological research, irrigation management and so on. The detail description please refers to "WATERNET_Data_Document_HRBMiddle.docx”.

0 2019-09-14

HiWATER: Dataset of surface temperature and albedo on village roof in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin

A land surface temperature and upward/downward shortwave radiation observation system was set up on the roof, which locate on the edge of No.4 eddy covariance system (EC4) of the MUlti-Scale Observation EXperiment on Evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12). This observation site can offer in situ calibration data for TASI, WiDAS and L band sensor used in aerospace experiment. Observation Site: This point is located in a large and homogeneous adobe roof in Shiqiao Village, Xiaoman Town, Zhangye City. Land surface of observation site is relatively flat and uniform, and also not tall trees around. It’s about 20 meters away from southwest No.4 eddy covariance system (EC4) observation points. The coordinates of this site: 38°52′38.50″ N,100°21′27.00″ E。 Observation Instrument: Observation system is composed of a SI-111 infrared radiometer (Campbell, USA) installed vertically downward, two CMP3 pyranometer (Kipp&Zonen, Netherlands) one upward, another downward. Observation height is 1.0 m, data logging by a Campbell CR850 logger. Sensor orientation: Observation mounting arm has 3 m long, parallel to roof edge, azimuth angle: 156° (East by south 66°) Observation Time: This site operates from 23 June, 2012 to 20 September, 2012. Observation data laagered by every 5 seconds uninterrupted. Output data contained sample data of every 5 seconds and mean data of 1 minute. Accessory data: Land surface (adobe roof) temperature, downward/upward total solar radiation, surface albedo. Dataset is stored in *.dat file, which can be read by Microsoft excel or other text processing software (UltraEdit, et. al). Table heads meaning: Rs_downwell, downward shortwave radiation (W/m^2); Rs_upwell, upward (reflect) shortwave radiation (W/m^2); albedo, calculate by Rs_upwell/ Rs_downwell. SBT_C, body temperature of SI-111 sensor (℃); Target_C, Target of surface temperature (℃). Dataset is stored day by day, named as: data format + site name + interval time + date + time. The detailed information about data item showed in data header introduction in dataset.

0 2019-09-14

WATER: Dataset of albedo observations in the Linze grassland foci experimental area form May to July , 2008

The dataset of albedo observations was obtained in the Linze grassland foci experimental area. Measurements were carried out by using the shortwave radiometer (the upward radiometer: 071392; the downward radiometer: 071389) in the reed plot A, the saline plots B and C, the alfalfa plot D, the barley plot E and the temporary cement floor. Manual work was applied before Jun. 6, 2008 with the probe 1.3m-1.46m high and automatic observations hereafter with the probe 1.20m or 1.30m. Observation site cover type observation date Plot E barley May 25, 2008 Plot D alfalfa May 26, 2008 Plot D alfalfa May 27, 2008 Plot E cumin May 28, 2008 Plot E cumin May 30, 2008 Plot A reed Jun. 1, 2008 Plot B saline Jun. 2, 2008 Plot A reed Jun. 3, 2008 Temporary cement floor Jun. 4, 2008 Vicinity of plot E Jun. 6, 2008 Plot A reed Jun. 20, 2008 Plot A reed Jun. 22, 2008 Plot D alfalfa Jun. 23, 2008 Plot E barley Jun. 24, 2008 Plot E barley Jul. 11, 2008 Self-recording observations included: TIMESTAMP: observation time SOLAR_UP_AVG: downward shortwave radiation SOLAR_DOWN_AVG: upward shortwave radiation SOLAR_NET_AVG: net radiation = SOLAR_UP_AVG - SOLAR_DOWN_AVG albedo_Avg: albedo = SOLAR_DOWN_AVG / SOLAR_UP_AVG batt_volt_Min: voltage ptemp: CR1000 temperature Data were archived in Excel file. See WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the foci experimental area of Linze station for more information.

0 2019-09-13

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission and Envisat ASAR in the Linze station foci experimental area on July 11, 2008

The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with the airborne WiDAS mission and Envisat ASAR was obtained in the Linze station foci experimental area on Jul. 11, 2008. WiDAS, composed of four CCD cameras, one mid-infrared thermal imager (AGEMA 550), and one infrared thermal imager (S60), can acquire CCD, MIR and TIR band data. The data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 11:26 BJT. The simultaneous ground data included the following items: (1) soil moisture (0-5cm) measured once by the cutting ring method at the corner points of the 40 subplots of the west-east desert transit zone strip , once by the cutting ring method in the nine subplots of the north-south desert transit zone, nine times in the LY06 and LY07 strips quadrates,and once by the cutting ring and once by ML2X Soil Moisture Tachometer in the Wulidun farmland. The preprocessed soil volumetric moisture data were archived as Excel files. (2) the surface radiative temperature measured by three handheld infrared thermometer (5# and 6# from Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, and one from Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources, which were all calibrated) in LY06 and LY07 strips (49 points and repeated three times), and Wulidun farmland quadrates (various points and repeated three times). Data were archived as Excel files. (3) spectrum of maize, soil and soil with known moisture measured by ASD Spectroradiometer (350~2 500 nm) from BNU and the reference board (40% before Jun. 15 and 20% hereafter) in Wulidun farmland. Raw spectral data were binary files , which were recorded daily in detail, and pre-processed data on reflectance (by ViewSpecPro) were archived as Excel files. (4) maize BRDF measured by ASD Spectroradiometer (350~2 500 nm) from BNU, the reference board (40% before Jun. 15 and 20% hereafter), two observation platforms of BNU make and one of Institute of Remote Sensing Applications make in Wulidun farmland. Raw spectral data were archived as binary files, which were recorded daily in detail, and pre-processed data on reflectance and transmittivity were archived as text files (.txt). (5) LAI measured in the maize quadrate, poplar quadrate and desert scrub quadrate in Wulidun farmland, the desert transit zone strips and the poplar forest quadrate by the fisheye camera (CANON EOS40D with a lens of EF15/28), shooting straight downwards, with exceptions of higher plants, which were shot upwards. Data included original photos (.JPG) and those processed by can_eye5.0 (in excel). (6) LAI of maize measured by LAI2000 in Linze station quadrates and Wulidun farmland quadrates. Data educed from LAI2000 periodically were archived as text files (.txt) and marked with one ID. Raw data (table of word and txt) and processed data (Excel) were included. Besides, observation time, the observation method and the repetition were all archived. (7) LAI measured by the ruler and the set square in B2 and B3 of Linze station quadrates. Data were archived as Excel files. See the metadata record “WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the Linze station foci experimental area” for more information of the quadrate locations.

0 2019-09-12

WATER: Dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Landsat TM in the Biandukou foci experimental area (Mar. 17, 2008)

The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Landsat TM was obtained in the Biandukou foci experimental area from 11:10-13:30 on Mar. 17, 2008. Those provide reliable ground data for objects modelling and background modelling, remote sensing image simulation and scaling. Simultaneous with the satellite overpass, numerous ground data were collected, spectrum (ASD Fieldspec FRTM (Boulder, Co, USA), 350nm-2500nm, 3nm for the visible near-infrared band and 10nm for the shortwave infrared band), the surface temperature, atmospheric parameters, the soil profile gravimetric moisture (0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm), the shallow layer frost depth and the soil roughness in C1, G1, W1, W2, B1 and B2, mostly the grassland, the wheat stubble land, the deep plowed land and the rape stubble land. The quadrates of 90m×90m and 450m×450m were compartmentalized into 81 subgrids of 10m×10m and 50m×50m. Based on the resolution of 30m×30m and 150m×150m, the influence of adjacent eight pixels on the center pixel was studied. Section lines of each subgrid were adopted to acquire the pixel spectrum, which were measured more than once for the mean value. The spectrum data were archived in the ASCII format, with the first five rows as the file header and the following two columns as wavelength (nm) and reflectance (percentage) respectively. The .txt file was not reflectance but intermediate file for further calculation. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro). The surface radiative temperature and the physical temperature were measured by the handheld infrared thermometer. Besides, the cover type was also recorded. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office. Atmospheric parameters were measured by CE318 to retrieve the total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, and various parameters at 550nm to obtain horizontal visibility with the help of MODTRAN or 6S. Those provide reliable data for atmosphere correction of the same period in this area. The gravimetric soil moisture (samples from 0-1cm, 1-3cm and 3-5cm) was measured by the microwave drying method. The frost depth by the chopstick and the ruler. The soil was considered frozen when it was hard and with ice crystal. The data can be opened by Microsoft Office. Nine data files were included, TM data, CE318 data, B1, B2, C1, G1, W1 and W2.

0 2019-09-12