This data set includes four soil temperature and moisture instrument observation points in the source area of the Yarlung Zangbo River Basin, that is Xietongmen County, Angren County, Saga County and Zhongba County. The observation time is from August 23 to December 10, 2017. And the observation interval is 10 minutes. There are 4 layers of depth of observation,which is 10cm, 40cm, 80cm and 120cm.The specific observation location and time range are as follows. Saga Bridge From 12:50:00 August 31, 2017 to 17:20:00 December 10, 2017 Maquan River Bridge From 19:30:00 August 30, 2017 to 13:10:00 December 10, 2017 Duoxiongzangbu From 17:20:00 August 24, 2017 to 12:20:00 December 8, 2017 Pangdaya River Bridge From 11:30:00 August 23, 2017 to 9:10:00 December 4, 2017 The soil moisture data is accurate to 3 digits after decimal point. The soil temperature data is accurate to 1 digit after decimal point. Quality control includes eliminating the data when the sensor is not fully adapted to the soil environment and system errors caused by sensor failure. The data is stored as an excel file.
This data set comprises the plateau soil moisture and soil temperature observational data based on the Tibetan Plateau, and it is used to quantify the uncertainty of model products of coarse-resolution satellites, soil moisture and soil temperature. The observation data of soil temperature and moisture on the Tibetan Plateau (Tibet-Obs) are from in situ reference networks at four regional scales, which are the Nagqu network of cold and semiarid climate, the Maqu network of cold and humid climate, and the Ali network of cold and arid climate，and Pali network. These networks provided representative coverage of different climates and surface hydrometeorological conditions on the Tibetan Plateau. - Temporal resolution: 1hour - Spatial resolution: point measurement - Measurement accuracy: soil moisture, 0.00001; soil temperature, 0.1 °C; data set size: soil moisture and temperature measurements at nominal depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 - Unit: soil moisture, cm ^ 3 cm ^ -3; soil temperature, °C
The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with airborne Polarimetric L-band Multibeam Radiometer (PLMR) mission was obtained in upper reaches of the Heihe River Basin on 1 August, 2012. PLMR is a dual-polarization (H/V) airborne microwave radiometer with a frequency of 1.413 GHz, which can provide multi-angular observations with 6 beams at ±7º, ±21.5º and ±38.5º. The PLMR spatial resolution (beam spot size) is approximately 0.3 times the altitude, and the swath width is about twice the altitude. The measurements were conducted along two transects respectively located at the west and east branches of the Babaohe River and two sampling plots in the A’rou foci experimental area. Along the transects, soil moisture was sampled at every 50 m in the west-east direction. In order to keep the ground measurements following the airborne mission as synchronous as possible in temporal, measurements were made discontinuously. In the A’rou foci experimental area, two sampling plots were identified with areas of 1.5 km × 0.6 km and 0.85 km × 0.6 km. In each plot, soil moisture was sampled at every 50 m in the west-east direction and 100 m in the north-south direction. Steven Hydro probes were used to collect soil moisture and other measurements. Concurrently with soil moisture sampling, vegetation properties were measured at some typical sampling plots. Observation items included: Soil parameters: volumetric soil moisture (inherently converted from measured soil dielectric constant), soil temperature, soil dielectric constant, soil electric conductivity. Vegetation parameters: biomass, vegetation water content, canopy height. Data and data format: This dataset includes two parts of measurements, i.e. soil and vegetation parameters. The former is as shapefile, with measured items stored in its attribute table. The measured vegetation parameters are recorded in an Excel file.
This dataset contains monthly 0.05°×0.05° (1982, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000) and 0.01°×0.01° (2005, 2010, 2015 and 2017) LST products in Qilian Mountain Area. The dataset was produced based on SW algorithm by AVHRR BT from thermal infrared channels (CH4: 10.5µm to 11.3µm; CH5: 11.5µm to 12.5µm) at a resolution of 0.05°, MYD21A1 LST products at a resolution of 0.01° along with some auxiliary datasets. The auxiliary datasets include IGBP land cover type, AVHRR NDVI products, Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications-2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data, ASTER GED, Lat/Lon and the Julian Day information.
The data set recorded data of a soil temperature and moisture observation network on the central Tibetan Plateau. Data content (data file, table name, and observation indicators included) (1) 57 observation sites (2) 2 observation variables (soil moisture and soil temperature) (3) 4 observation depths (0-5, 10, 20 and 40 cm) (4) 3 typical spatial scales, corresponding to a GCM grid (1°), passive microwave satellite pixel (0.3°), and radar satellite pixel (0.1°) The establishment of an observation network will support a series of hydrometeorological studies, including providing soil moisture and freeze-thaw measured data sets at three spatial scales (1°, 0.3°, and 0.1°), providing a data foundation for soil moisture upscaling studies and improving mesoscale hydrometeorological observations in the Nagqu area. The soil temperature and moisture observation network in the central Tibetan Plateau is located within a spatial range of 10,000 square kilometers on the central Tibetan Plateau, with an average elevation of 4,650 meters. Latitude: 31°-32°N; longitude: 91.5°-92.5°E. Data file field description: For example: "SM_NQ-30 minutes-05 cm.txt", "ST_NQ-30 minutes-05 cm.txt" SM refers to soil moisture, ST refers to soil temperature, NQ refers to Nagqu, 30 minutes refers to the temporal resolution of data, and 05 cm refers to the depth of the sampled soil layer. Data content field description: (1) 30 min resolution Variable 1-6: Date (Integer: yyyy-mm-dd-hh-mm-ss) Variable 7-63: Observational data values at each site (real, missing value: -99.00) (2) daily resolution Variable 1-3: Date (Integer: yyyy-mm-dd) Variable 4-60: Observation data values at each site (real, missing value: -99.00) Soil water volume content (SM) Unit: %vol (m³/m³) Soil temperature (ST) Unit: °C The 30 min resolution temperature data are the direct sampling data after quality control, and the soil moisture volume content is the correction value based on the soil moisture measurement by the drying method. The daily resolution data are the arithmetic mean value based on the 30 min resolution. Soil moisture measurement accuracy and resolution: ± 3% VWC and 0.1% VWC.
The GAME/Tibet project conducted a short-term pre-intensive observing period (PIOP) at the Amdo station in the summer of 1997. From May to September 1998, five consecutive IOPs were scheduled, with approximately one month per IOP. More than 80 scientific workers from China, Japan and South Korea went to the Tibetan Plateau in batches and carried out arduous and fruitful work. The observation tests and plans were successfully completed. After the completion of the IOP in September, 1998, five automatic weather stations (AWS), one Portable Atmospheric Mosonet (PAM), one boundary layer tower and integrated radiation observatory (Amdo) and nine soil temperature and moisture observation stations have been continuously observed to date and have obtained extremely valuable information for 8 years and 6 months consecutively (starting from June 1997). The experimental area is located in Nagqu, in northern Tibet, and has an area of 150 km × 200 km (Fig. 1), and observation points are also established in D66, Tuotuohe and the Tanggula Mountain Pass (D105) along the Qinghai-Tibet Highway. The following observation stations (sites) are set up on different underlying surfaces including plateau meadows, plateau lakes, and desert steppe. (1) Two multidisciplinary (atmosphere and soil) observation stations, Amdo and NaquFx, have multicomponent radiation observation systems, gradient observation towers, turbulent flux direct measurement systems, soil temperature and moisture gradient observations, radiosonde, ground soil moisture observation networks and multiangle spectrometer observations used as ground truth values for satellite data, etc. (2) There are six automatic weather stations (D66, Tuotuohe, D105, D110, Nagqu and MS3608), each of which has observations of wind, temperature, humidity, pressure, radiation, surface temperature, soil temperature and moisture, precipitation, etc. (3) PAM stations (Portable Automated Meso - net) located approximately 80 km north and south of Nagqu (MS3478 and MS3637) have major projects similar to the two integrated observation stations (Amdo and NaquFx) above and to the wind, temperature and humidity turbulence observations. (4) There are nine soil temperature and moisture observation sites (D66, Tuotuohe, D110, WADD, NODA, Amdo, MS3478, MS3478 and MS3637), each of which has soil temperature measurements of 6 layers and soil moisture measurement of 9 layers. (5) A 3D Doppler Radar Station is located in the south of Nagqu, and there are seven encrypted precipitation gauges in the adjacent (within approximately 100 km) area. The radiation observation system mainly studies the plateau cloud and precipitation system and serves as a ground true value station for the TRMM satellite. The GAME-Tibet project seeks to gain insight into the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its impact on the Asian monsoon system through enhanced observational experiments and long-term monitoring at different spatial scales. After the end of 2000, the GAME/Tibet project joined the “Coordinated Enhanced Observing Period (CEOP)” jointly organized by two international plans, GEWEX (Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) and CL IVAR (Climate Change and Forecast). The Asia-Australia Monsoon Project (CAMP) on the Tibetan Plateau of the Global Coordinated Enhanced Observation Program (CEOP) has been started. The data set contains POP data for 1997 and IOP data for 1998. Ⅰ. The POP data of 1997 contain the following. 1. Precipitation Gauge Network (PGN) 2. Radiosonde Observation at Naqu 3. Analysis of Stable Isotope for Water Cycle Studies 4. Doppler radar observation 5. Large-Scale Hydrological Cycle in Tibet (Link to Numaguchi's home page) 6. Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) [Japanese] 7. Ground Truth Data Collection (GTDC) for Satellite Remote Sensing 8. Tanggula AWS (D105 station in Tibet) 9. Syamboche AWS (GEN/GAME AWS in Nepal) Ⅱ. The IOP data of 1998 contain the following. 1. Anduo （1） PBL Tower, 2） Radiation, 3） Turbulence SMTMS 2. D66 （1） AWS （2） SMTMS （3） GTDC （4) Precipitation 3. Toutouhe （1） AWS （2） SMTMS （3 ）GTDC 4. D110 （1） AWS （2） SMTMS (3) GTDC (4) SMTMS 5. MS3608 （1） AWS （2） SMTMS （3） Precipitation 6. D105 （1） Precipitation (2) GTDC 7. MS3478(NPAM) （1） PAM （2） Precipitation 8. MS3637 （1） PAM （2） SMTMS （3） Precipitation 9. NODAA （1） SMTMS (2) Precipitation 10. WADD （1） SMTMS （2） Precipitation （3） Barometricmd 11. AQB （1） Precipitation 12. Dienpa (RS2) （1） Precipitation 13. Zuri （1） Precipitation （2） Barometricmd 14. Juze （1） Precipitation 15. Naqu hydrological station （1） Precipitation 16. MSofNaqu （1） Barometricmd 16. Naquradarsite （1）Radar system （2） Precipitation 17. Syangboche [Nepal] （1） AWS 18. Shiqu-anhe （1） AWS （2） GTDC 19. Seqin-Xiang （1） Barometricmd 20. NODA （1）Barometricmd （2） Precipitation （3) SMTMS 21. NaquHY （1） Barometricmd （2） Precipitation 22. NaquFx(BJ) （1） GTDC（2) PBLmd (3) Precipitation 23. MS3543 （1） Precipitation 24. MNofAmdo （1） Barometricmd 25. Mardi （1） Runoff 26. Gaize （1） AWS （2） GTDC （3） Sonde A CD of the data GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd （vol. 1) GAME-Tibet POP/IOP dataset cd （vol. 2)
This data set contains the daily values of soil temperature and moisture at different depths observed from the Integrated Observation and Research Station of the Westerly Environment in Muztagh Ata from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015. The data were collected digitally and automatically by observation instruments. The data set was processed by forming a continuous time sequence after the raw data were quality controlled. Observation and collection of the data were performed in strict accordance with the instrument operating specifications, and the systematic error caused by the missing point data and the sensor failure were eliminated. This table contains 12 fields. Field 1: Station Number Data type: Character (50) Field 2: Time Data type: date type Fields 3 to 7: Soil temperature (different depths) Data type: double precision floating point Unit: °C Fields 8 to 12: Soil moisture (different depths) Data type: double precision floating point Unit: %
The dataset of soil moisture profile observations (5cm, 10cm, 20cm and 40cm) was obtained in the Linze grassland foci experimental area from May 24 to Jun. 30, 2008. Four points, with various underlying surface and depth in each plot of A, B, C, D and E, were measured by the cutting ring. Data were archived in Excel and Word file. See WATER: Dataset of setting of the sampling plots and stripes in the foci experimental area of Linze station for more information.
The dataset of soil moisture observations (VWC%) was obtained at the super site (100m×100m) around the Dayekou Guantan forest station on Jun. 5, 2008. The super site was divided into 16 subplots (25m×25m). 10 points were measured by TDR 300 (with the probe 20cm long) at random location in each subplot. The serial number and the cover type of the subplot, the number of the sample points and soil moisture (%) were recorded. Those provide reliable data for the construction of the 3D structure of the forest scene, and for the modeling of active and passive remote sensing mechanisms and the simulation of remote sensing images.