The meteorological forcing dataset in Three-River Headwater Region (1979-2016)

This dataset is the spatial distribution map of the marshes in the source area of the Yellow River near the Zaling Lake-Eling Lake, covering an area of about 21,000 square kilometers. The data set is classified by the Landsat 8 image through an expert decision tree and corrected by manual visual interpretation. The spatial resolution of the image is 30m, using the WGS 1984 UTM projected coordinate system, and the data format is grid format. The image is divided into five types of land, the land type 1 is “water body”, the land type 2 is “high-cover vegetation”, the land type 3 is “naked land”, and the land type 4 is “low-cover vegetation”, and the land type 5 is For "marsh", low-coverage vegetation and high-coverage vegetation are distinguished by vegetation coverage. The threshold is 0.1 to 0.4 for low-cover vegetation and 0.4 to 1 for high-cover vegetation.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(Zhangye wetland station)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from Zhangye wetland station in the flux observation matrix from 25 June to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.44640° E, 38.97514° N) was located in a wetland surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1460 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (03002; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), wind direction (03002; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (NR01; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109ss-L; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, and -0.4 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m, RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), and soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, ℃). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-15

The meteorological observation dataset of Guoluo meadow on the Tibetan Plateau (2005-2009)

This data set includes meteorological data observed by the carbon flux station in the Guoluo Army Ranch in Qinghai. The temporal coverage is from 2005 to 2009, and the temporal resolution is 1 day. Meteorological and carbon flux data observation methods: vorticity-related observation instruments were used for automatic recording; biomass observation method: harvest method, weighing in a 60-degree oven for 48 hours. Both carbon flux and meteorological data were automatically recorded by the instruments and manually checked. During the data observation process, the operation of the instrument and the selection of the observation objects were in strict accordance with professional requirements, and the data could be applied to plant leaf photosynthetic parameter simulation and productivity estimation. This data contains observation items as follows: Temperature °C Precipitation mm Wind speed m/s Soil temperature at 5 cm depth °C Photosynthetically active radiation µmol/m²s Total radiation W/m²

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix (Daman superstation)

This dataset contains the flux observation matrix measurements obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the Daman superstation between 10 May and 26 September, 2012. The site (100.37223° E, 38.85551° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in the Daman irrigation, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556.06 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (AV-14TH; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2.5 m), four-component radiometer (PSP&PIR; 12 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 12 m, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (LI-190SB; 12 m, towards south), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation; and the other between plants, -0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m, and Ws_40 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m, WD_10 m, WD_15 m, WD_20 m, WD_30 m, and WD_40 m, °), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, μmol/ (s m^-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2, and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm, ℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-15

The recipitation of main areas in Qinghai Province (1988-2016)

The data set includes precipitation data of main areas in Qinghai Province from 1988 to 2016 such as Xining, Haidong, Menyuan, Huangnan, Hainan, Guoluo, Yushu and Haixi. The data were derived from the Qinghai Society and Economics Statistical Yearbook and the Qinghai Statistical Yearbook. The accuracy of the data is consistent with that of the statistical yearbook. The data table records the monthly and annual precipitation in 8 regions of Qinghai with units of millimeters. The data set is mainly applied in geography and socioeconomic research.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(automatic meteorological station of No.7)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.7 in the flux observation matrix from 28 May to 18 September, 2012. The site (100.36521° E, 38.87676° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556.39 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (010C/020X; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). One of the infrared temperature sensors (IRT_2) was adjusted to a zenith angle of 50° after 6 August. The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: Dataset of flux observation matrix(No.11 automatic meteorological station) of he multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (2012)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.11 in the flux observation matrix from 2 June to 18 September, 2012. The site (100.34197° E, 38.86991° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1575.65 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed and direction (03001; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-15

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(shenshawo desert station) from Jun to Sep, 2012

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from Shenshawo sandy desert station in the flux observation matrix from 1 June to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.49330° E, 38.78917° N) was located in a desert surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1594 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), air pressure (PTB110; 2 m), rain gauge (52203; 10 m), wind speed (03001; 5 m and 10 m, towards north), wind direction (03001; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 4 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 4 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (109; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, and -1.0 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and Ta_10 m, RH_5 m and RH_10 m) (℃ and %, respectively), air pressure (press, hpa), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_5 m and Ws_10 m, m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m, °), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, and Ts_100 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, and Ms_100 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-14

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(Huazhaizi desert station) from Feb to Sep, 2012

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from Huazhaizi desert steppe station in the flux observation matrix from 2 June to 21 September, 2012. The site (100.31860° E, 38.76519° N) was located in a desert steppe surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1731 m. There are two equipment in the site, and installed by Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAREERI) and Beijing Normal University (BNU), respectively. The installation heights and orientations of BNU were as follows: two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 2.65 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04 m), and soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04 m). For the CAREERI installation: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45A; 1, 1.99 and 2.99 m, north), wind speed profile (03102; 0.48, 0.98, 1.99 and 2.99 m, north), wind direction (03302; 4 m, north), air pressure (PTB210; in waterproof box), rain gauge (CTK-15PC; 0.7 m), four-component radiometer (CNR1; 2.5 m, south), soil temperature profile (107; -0.04, -0.1, -0.18, -0.26, -0.34, -0.42 and -0.5 m), soil moisture profile (ML2X; -0.02, -0.1, -0.18, -0.26, -0.34, -0.42, -0.5, and -0.58 m, 3 duplicates in -0.02 m). The observations included the following: (1) infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm) (%). (2) air temperature and humidity (Ta_1 m, Ta_1.99 m and Ta_2.99 m; RH_1 m, RH_1.99 m and RH_2.99 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_0.48 m, Ws_0.98 m, Ws_1.99 m and Ws_2.99 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_4 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_18 cm, Ts_26 cm, Ts_34 cm, Ts_42 cm and Ts_50 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm_1, Ms_2 cm_2, Ms_2 cm_3, Ms_10 cm, Ms_18 cm, Ms_26 cm, Ms_34 cm, Ms_42 cm, Ms_50 cm and Ms_58 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The BNU data were averaged over intervals of 10 min, The CAREERI data were averaged over intervals of 30 min. A total of 144 runs per day were recorded in BNU data and 48 records per day in CAREERI data. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2012-6-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-14

HiWATER: The multi-scale observation experiment on evapotranspiration over heterogeneous land surfaces 2012 (MUSOEXE-12)-dataset of flux observation matrix(automatic meteorological station of No.9)

This dataset contains the automatic weather station (AWS) measurements from site No.9 in the flux observation matrix from 4 June to 17 September, 2012. The site (100.38546° E, 38.87239° N) was located in a cropland (maize surface) in Yingke irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1543.34 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity (HMP45AC; 5 m, towards north), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), wind speed (010C; 10 m, towards north), a four-component radiometer (CNR1; 6 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, vertically downward), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04 m), and soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates with one below the vegetation and the other between plants, 0.06 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m and RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), precipitation (rain, mm), wind speed (Ws_10 m, m/s), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation; W/m2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IR_2, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2 and Gs_3, W/m^2), soil temperature profile (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, and Ts_4 cm, ℃), and soil moisture profile (Ms_2 cm and Ms_4 cm, %). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows. (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min; therefore, there were 144 records per day. The missing data were filled with -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) In this dataset, the time of 0:10 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:10; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. (5) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-14