This dataset is the Fractional Vegetation Cover observation in the artificial oasis experimental region of the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin. The observations lasted for a vegetation growth cycle from May 2012 to September 2012 (UTC+8). Instruments and measurement method: Digital photography measurement is implemented to measure the FVC. Plot positions, photographic method and data processing method are dedicatedly designed. Details are described in the following: 0. In ﬁeld measurements, a long stick with the camera mounted on one end is beneﬁcial to conveniently measure various species of vegetation, enabling a larger area to be photographed with a smaller ﬁeld of view. The stick can be used to change the camera height; a ﬁxed-focus camera can be placed at the end of the instrument platform at the front end of the support bar, and the camera can be operated by remote control. 1. For row crop like corn, the plot is set to be 10×10 m2, and for the orchard, plot scale is 30×30 m2. Shoot 9 times along two perpendicularly crossed rectangular-belt transects. The picture generated of each time is used to calculate a FVC value. “True FVC” of the plot is then acquired as the average of these 9 FVC values. 2. The photographic method used depends on the species of vegetation and planting pattern: Low crops (<2 m) in rows in a situation with a small ﬁeld of view (<30 ), rows of more than two cycles should be included in the ﬁeld of view, and the side length of the image should be parallel to the row. If there are no more than two complete cycles, then information regarding row spacing and plant spacing are required. The FVC of the entire cycle, that is, the FVC of the quadrat, can be obtained from the number of rows included in the ﬁeld of view. 3. High vegetation in rows (>2 m) Through the top-down photography of the low vegetation underneath the crown and the bottom-up photography beneath the tree crown, the FVC within the crown projection area can be obtained by weighting the FVC obtained from the two images. Next, the low vegetation between the trees is photographed, and the FVC that does not lie within the crown projection area is calculated. Finally, the average area of the tree crown is obtained using the tree crown projection method. The ratio of the crown projection area to the area outside the projection is calculated based on row spacing, and the FVC of the quadrat is obtained by weighting. 4. FVC extraction from the classiﬁcation of digital images. Many methods are available to extract the FVC from digital images, and the degree of automation and the precision of identiﬁcation are important factors that affect the efﬁciency of ﬁeld measurements. This method, which is proposed by the authors, has the advantages of a simple algorithm, a high degree of automation and high precision, as well as ease of operation.
This data set contains the surface temperature and surface emissivity products retrieved from 12 ASTER data in the middle reaches of Heihe River Basin in 2012. The 12 scenes ASTER data all cover the ecological and hydrological experimental area of the middle reaches artificial oasis. The acquisition time (Beijing time) is: 2012-05-302012-06-152012-06-242012-07-102012-08-02, 2012-08-112012-08-182012-08-272012-09-03, 2012-09-122012-09-192012-09-28. The transit time of the above data is around 12:15 (Beijing time). Firstly, the L1B data is corrected by aster L3 data, and then the L1B data is corrected by MODIS mod07 atmospheric profile product with the same transit time and the atmospheric radiation transfer model MODTRAN. In order to improve the accuracy of atmospheric correction, the water vapor scaling (WVS) atmospheric correction method is used. Finally, the aster temperature emissivity separation (TES) algorithm is used to retrieve the surface temperature and the surface emissivity of five bands. The results show that the average deviation of surface temperature products is less than 0.5K and RMSE is less than 2K. This data set can provide reliable input data for remote sensing estimation of key water and heat variables of heterogeneous surface.
This data is the ASTER fractional vegetation cover in a growth cycle observed in the Yingke Oasis Crop land. Data observations began on May 30, 2012 and ended on September 12. Original data: 1.15m resolution L1B reflectivity product of ASTER 2.Vegetation coverage data set of the artificial oasis experimental area in the middle reaches Data processing: 1.Preprocessing of ASTER reflectance products to obtain ASTER NDVI; 2.Through the NDVI-FVC nonlinear transformation form, the ASTER NDVI and the ground measured FVC are used to obtain the conversion coefficients of NDVI to FVC at different ASTER scales. 3.Apply this coefficient to the ASTER image to obtain a vegetation coverage of 15m resolution; 4.Aggregate 15m resolution ASTER FVC to get 1km ASTER FVC product
This dataset is the LAI observation in the artificial oasis experimental region of the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin. The observation period is from 24 May to 20 September 2012 (UTC+8). Measurement instruments: LAI-2000 (Beijing Normal University) Measurement positions: Core Experimental Area of Flux Observation Matrix 18 corn samples, 1 orchard sample, 1 artificial white poplar sample Measurement methods: To measure the incoming sky radiation on the canopy firstly. Then the transmission sky radiation are mearued under the canopy for serveral times. The canopy LAI is retrieved by using the gap probability model.
This dataset is the FPAR observation in the artificial oasis experimental region of the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin. The observation period is from 24 May to 19 July, 2012 (UTC+8). Measurement instruments: AccuPAR (Beijing Normal University) Measurement positions: Core Experimental Area of Flux Observation Matrix 18 corn samples, 1 orchard sample, 1 artificial white poplar sample Measurement methods: For corn, to measure the incoming PAR on the canopy, transmission PAR under the canopy, reflected PAR on the canopy, reflected PAR under the canopy. For orchard and white poplar forest, to measure the incoming PAR outside of the canopy, transmission PAR under the canopy. Corresponding data: Land cover, plant height, crop rows identification
This dataset includes the emissivity spectrum of typical ground objects in middle researches of the Heihe river basin. This dataset was acquired in oasis, desert, Gobi and wetland of experiment area. Time range starts from 2012-05-25 to 2012-07-18 (UTC+8). Instrument: MODEL 102F PORTABLE FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer), Handheld infrared thermometer. Measurement methods: at the first step, measure the thermal radiance of cold blackbody, warm blackbody, sample and gold plate (Downwelling Radiance). The radiance of cold blackbody and warm blackbody was used to calibrate the instrument, and eliminate the “noise” caused by the device itself. The retrieval of emissivity and temperature was then performed using iterative spectrally smooth temperature-emissivity separation (ISSTES) algorithm. The retrieved emissivity spectrum range from 8 to 14 μm, with spectral resolution of 4cm-1. Dataset contains the original recorded spectra (in ASCII format) and the log files (in doc format). The processed data are emissivity curves (ASCII) that ranged from 8 to 14 μm, and the temperatures of samples. Thermal photos of the sample, digital photo of the scene and the object are recorded in some cases.
This dataset includes 12 scenes, covering the artificial oasis eco-hydrology experimental area of the Heihe River Basin, which were acquired on (yy-mm-dd) 2012-05-30, 2012-06-15, 2012-06-24, 2012-07-10, 2012-08-02, 2012-08-11, 2012-08-18, 2012-08-27, 2012-09-03, 2012-09-12, 2012-09-19, 2012-09-28. The data were all acquired around 12:00 (BJT) at Level 1A, i.e., without atmospheric and geometric correction. ASTER dataset was purchased from Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA).