HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of mixed forest station, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the mixed forest station eddy covariance system (EC) in the lower reaches of the Heihe hydrometeorological observation network from 12 July to 31 December, 2013. The site (101.134° E, 41.990° N) was located in the Populus and Tamarix surface, Ejin Banner in Inner Mongolia. The elevation is 874 m. The EC was installed at a height of 22 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.17 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), as proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), which represent high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened using a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.2 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. Due to the malfunction of sonic anemometer, data during 16 August to 17 September were missing. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-14

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Zhangye wetland station, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Zhangye wetland station eddy covariance system (EC) in the middle reaches of the Heihe hydrometeorological observation network from 15 September, 2012, to 21 November, 2013. The site (100.446° E, 38.975° N) was located in the desert steppe surface, near Zhangye city in Gansu Province. The elevation is 1460 m. The EC was installed at a height of 5.2 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (Gill&Li7500A) was 0.25 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software (Li-Cor Company, http://www.licor.com/env/products/eddy_covariance/software.html), including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), as proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), which represent high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened using a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. Due to the calibration of CO2/H2O gas analyzer and CF card storage problem, data during 28 May to 30 May, and 21 November to 31 December, 2013 were missing. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-12

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Populus forest station, 2014)

This dataset contains eddy correlation instrument observation data from the Huyanglin station downstream of the Heihe Hydrological and Meteorological Observation Network from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2014. The site is located in Sidaoqiao, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia, and the underlying surface is Populus euphratica. The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 101.1236E, 41.9928N, and the altitude is 876m. The vortex correlator has a height of 22 m and a sampling frequency of 10 Hz. The ultrasonic orientation is in the north direction, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed temperature meter (CSAT3) and the CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 17 cm. The original observation data of the eddy correlation meter is 10 Hz, and the released data is 30 minutes of data processed by Eddypro software. The main steps of the processing include: outlier removal, time-lag correction, coordinate rotation (secondary coordinate rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction, etc. At the same time, the quality evaluation of each flux value is conducted, it mainly contains atmosphere state stability test(Δst) and integrated turbulence characteristic test(ITC). The 30-min flux value output by Eddypro software was also screened: (1) data from the instrument error was eliminated; (2) data 1 h before and after precipitation was removed; (3) data from the deletion rate greater than 10% within every 30 min of the 10 Hz raw data. (4) eliminating observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1 m/s). The average time period of observation data is 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data is labeled -6999. Abnormal data caused by instrument drift and other reasons are marked in red. From February 21 to March 13, the data is missing due to problems in memory card and wireless transmission module. Published observations include: date/time Date/Time, wind direction Wdir(°), horizontal wind speed Wnd(m/s), lateral wind speed standard deviation Std_Uy(m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature Tv(°C), water vapor density H2O (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration CO2 (mg/m3), friction velocity Ustar (m/s), stability Z/L (dimensionless), sensible heat flux Hs (W/m2), latent heat flux LE (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux Fc (mg/(m2s)), sensible heat flux quality identification QA_Hs, latent heat flux quality identification QA_LE, carbon dioxide flux quality identification QA_Fc. The quality identification of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide flux is divided into three levels (quality mark 0: (Δst <30, ITC<30); 1: (Δst <100, ITC<100); the rest is 2). The meaning of the data time, such as 0:30 represents an average of 0:00-0:30; the data is stored in *.xls format. For hydrometeorological network or site information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2019-09-12

HiWATER: Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of Sidaoqiao superstation, 2017)

The data set contains the observation data of the eddy covariance system of Sidaoqiao superstation which is located along the lower reaches of the Heihe Hydrometeorological observation network, and the data set covers data from January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2017. The station is located in Sidao Bridge, Ejina Banner, Inner Mongolia, and the underlying surface is Tamarix. The latitude and longitude of the observation station is 101.1374E, 42.0012N, and the altitude is 873 m. The height of the eddy covariance system is 8 meters, the sampling frequency is 10Hz, the ultrasonic orientation is positive north, and the distance between the ultrasonic wind speed and temperature monitor (CSAT3) and the CO2/H2O analyzer (Li7500) is 15cm. The original observation data of the eddy covariance system is 10 Hz, and the released data is a 30-minute data processed by Eddypro software. The main steps of the processing include: outlier eliminating, delay time correction, coordinates rotation (secondary coordinates rotation), frequency response correction, ultrasonic virtual temperature correction and density (WPL) correction, etc. Meanwhile, the quality evaluation of each flux value was performed,mainly includes atmospheric stability (Δst) test and turbulence similarity (ITC) test. The 30-min flux value output of Eddypro software was also screened: (1) Data from the instrument error was eliminated; (2) Data obtained with one hour before and after precipitation was removed; (3) Data with a deletion rate greater than 10% of the 10 Hz raw data every 30 minutes was eliminated; (4) Observation data of weak turbulence at night (u* less than 0.1 m/s) was excluded. The average period of observation data is 30 minutes, 48 data per day, and the missing data is marked as -6999. The data was missing due to Li7500 calibration of the eddy system on April 7 and 8; the suspicious data caused by instrument drift and other reasons was marked by red fonts. Published observation data include: date/time Date/Time, wind direction(°), horizontal wind speed(m/s), lateral wind speed standard deviation(m/s), ultrasonic virtual temperature (°C), water vapor density (g/m3), carbon dioxide concentration(mg/m3), friction velocity (m/s), length (m), sensible heat flux(W/m2), latent heat flux (W/m2), carbon dioxide flux (mg/(m2s)), sensible heat flux quality identification QA_Hs, latent heat flux quality identification QA_LE, carbon dioxide flux quality identification QA_Fc. The quality identification of sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide flux is divided into three levels (quality mark 0: (Δst <30, ITC<30); 1: (Δst <100, ITC<100); the rest is 2). The meaning of the data time, such as 0:30 represents an average data of 0:00-0:30; the data is stored in *.xls format. For hydrometeorological network or station information, please refer to Li et al. (2013). For observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).

0 2019-09-11

HiWATER:Dataset of hydrometeorological observation network (eddy covariance system of barren-land station, 2013)

This dataset contains the flux measurements from the barren-land station eddy covariance system (EC) in the lower reaches of the Heihe hydrometeorological observation network from 10 July to 31 December, 2013. The site (101.133° E, 41.999° N) was located in the barren-land surface, Ejin Banner in Inner Mongolia. The elevation is 878 m. The EC was installed at a height of 3.5 m, and the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (CSAT3&Li7500) was 0.15 m. The raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Edire post-processing software (University of Edinburgh, http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/abs/research/micromet/EdiRe/), including the spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. The observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), as proposed by Foken and Wichura [1996]: class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), which represent high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened using a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data collected before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.2 m/s. There were 48 records per day, and the missing data were replaced with -6999. Suspicious data were marked in red. Due to the malfunction of CO2/H2O gas analyzer and CF card storage problem, data during 17 July to 13 September and 6 December to 11 December were missing. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xls format. For more information, please refer to Li et al. (2013) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.

0 2019-09-11

WATER: Dataset of eddy covariance observations at the A'rou freeze/thaw observation station

The dataset of eddy covariance observations was obtained at the A'rou freeze/thaw observation station from Jul. 14, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2010, in Wawangtan pasture (E100°28′/N38°03′, 3032.8m), Daban, A'rou. The experimental area with a flat and open terrain slightly sloping from southeast to northwest and hills and mountains stretching outwards is an ideal horizontal homogeneous underlying surface. The original observation items included the latitudinal wind speed Ux (m/s), the latitudinal wind speed Uy (m/s), the longitudinal wind speed Uz (m/s), the ultrasonic temperature Ts (°C), co2 consistency (mg/m^3), h2o consistency (g/m^3), air pressure (KPa) and the abnormal ultrasonic signal (diag_csat). The instrument height was 2.81m, the ultrasound direction was at an azimuth angle of 0°, the distance between Li7500 and CSAT3 was 30m and sampling frequency was 10HZ/s. The instrument mount was 3.15m, the ultrasound direction was at an azimuth angle of 86°, the distance between Li7500 and CSAT3 was 22cm and sampling frequency was 10HZ/s. The dataset was released at three levels: Level0 were the raw data acquired by instruments; Level1, including the sensible heat flux (Hs), the latent heat flux (LE_wpl), and co2 flux (Fc_wpl), were real-time eddy covariance output data and stored in .csv month by month; Level2 were processed data in a 30-minute cycle after outliers elimination, coordinates rotation, frequency response correction, WPL correction and initial quality control. The data were named as follows: station name +data level+data acquisition date. As for detailed information, please refer to Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide and Eddy Covariance Observation Manual.

0 2019-05-24

WATER: Dataset of eddy covariance observations at the Yingke oasis station

The dataset of eddy covariance observations was obtained at the Yingke Oasis station from 27 Dec. 2007 to 31 Dec. 2009. The observation site is located in an irrigation farmland in Yingke (E100°24′37.2″/N38°51′25.7″, 1519.1m), Zhangye city, Gansu province. The experimental area, situated in the middle stream Heihe river basin and with windbreaks space of 500m from east to west and 300m from south to north, is an ideal choice for its flat and open terrain. The original observation items included the latitudinal wind speed Ux (m/s), the latitudinal wind speed Uy (m/s), the longitudinal wind speed Uz (m/s), the ultrasonic temperature Ts (°C), co2 consistency (mg/m^3), h2o consistency (g/m^3), air pressure (KPa) and the abnormal ultrasonic signal (diag_csat). The instrument mount was 2.81m, the ultrasound direction was at an azimuth angle of 0°, the distance between Li7500 and CSAT3 was 30cm and the sampling frequency was 10HZ/s. The dataset was distributed at three levels: Level0 were the raw data acquired by instruments; Level1, including the sensible heat flux (Hs), the latent heat flux (LE_wpl), and co2 flux (Fc_wpl), were real-time eddy covariance output data and stored in .csv month by month; Level2 were processed data in a 30-minute cycle after outliers elimination, coordinates rotation, frequency response correction, WPL correction and initial quality control. The data files were named as follows: station name +data level+data acquisition date. As for detailed information, please refer to Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide and Eddy Covariance Observation Manual.

0 2019-05-23

WATER: Dataset of eddy covariance observations at the Dayekou Guantan forest station

The dataset of eddy covariance observations was obtained at the Dayekou Guantan forest station (E100°15′/N38°32′, 2835m), south of Zhangye city, Gansu province, from Dec. 27, 2007 to Dec. 31, 2009. Guantan forest station was dominated by the spruce 15-20m high and the surface was covered by moss 10cm deep. All the vegetation was in good condition. The original observation items included the latitudinal wind speed Ux (m/s), the latitudinal wind speed Uy (m/s), the longitudinal wind speed Uz (m/s), the ultrasonic temperature Ts (°C), co2 consistency (mg/m^3), h2o consistency (g/m^3), air pressure (KPa) and the abnormal ultrasonic signal (diag_csat). The instrument mount-height was 20.02m, the ultrasound direction was at an azimuth angle of 74°, the distance between Li7500 and CSAT3 was 30cm and sampling frequency was 10HZ. The dataset was distributed at three levels: Level0 were the raw data acquired by instruments; Level1, including the sensible heat flux (Hs), the latent heat flux (LE_wpl), and co2 flux (Fc_wpl), were real-time eddy covariance output data and stored in .csv month by month; Level2 were processed data in a 30-minute cycle after outliers elimination, coordinates rotation, frequency response correction, WPL correction and initial quality control. The data were named as follows: station name +data level+data acquisition date. As for detailed information, please refer to Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide and Eddy Covariance Observation Manual.

0 2019-05-23