This dataset (version 1.5) is derived from the complementary-relationship method, with inputs of CMFD downward short- and long-wave radiation, air temperature, air pressure, GLASS albedo and broadband longwave emissivity, ERA5-land land surface temperature and humidity, and NCEP diffuse skylight ratio, etc. This dataset covers the period of 1982-2017, and the spatial coverage is Chinese land area. This dataset would be helpful for long-term hydrological cycle and climate change research. Land surface actual evapotranspiration (Ea)，unit: mm month-1. The spatial resolution is 0.1-degree; The temporal resolution is monthly; The data type is NetCDF; This evapotranspiration dataset is only for land surface.
The dataset of CMA operational meteorological stations observations in the Heihe river basin were provided by Gansu Meteorological Administration and Qinghai Meteorological Administration. It included: (1) Diurnal precipitation, sunshine, evaporation, the wind speed, the air temperature and air humidity (2, 8, 14 and 20 o'clock) in Mazongshan, Yumen touwnship, Dingxin, Jinta, Jiuquan, Gaotai, Linze, Sunan, Zhangye, Mingle, Shandan and Yongchang in Gansu province (2) the wind direction and speed, the temperature and the dew-point spread (8 and 20 o'clock; 850, 700, 600, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100 and 50hpa) in Jiuquan, Zhangye and Mingqin in Gansu province and Golmud, Doulan and Xining in Qinghai province (3) the surface temperature, the dew point, the air pressure, the voltage transformation (3 hours and 24 hours), the weather phenomena (the present and the past), variable temperatures, visibility, cloudage, the wind direction and speed, precipitation within six hours and unusual weather in Jiuquan, Sunan, Jinta, Dingxin, Mingle, Zhangye, Gaotai, Shandan, Linze, Yongchang and Mingqin in Gansu province and Tuole, Yeniugao, Qilian, Menyuan, Xining, Gangcha and Huangyuan in Qinhai province.
Surface evapotranspiration (ET) is an important variable that connects the land energy balance, water cycle and carbon cycle. The accurate acquisition of ET is helpful to the research of global climate change, crop yield estimation, drought monitoring, and it is of great significance to regional and global water resource planning and management. The methods of obtaining evapotranspiration mainly include ground observation, remote sensing estimation, model simulation and assimilation. The high-precision surface evapotranspiration data can be obtained by ground observation, but the spatial representation of observation stations is very limited; remote sensing estimation, model simulation and assimilation methods can obtain the spatial continuous surface evapotranspiration, but there are problems in the verification of accuracy and the rationality of spatial-temporal distribution pattern. Therefore, this study makes full use of a large number of high-precision station observation data, combined with multi-source remote sensing information, to expand the observation scale of ground stations to the region, to obtain high-precision, spatiotemporal distribution of continuous surface evapotranspiration. Based on the "Heihe River Integrated Remote Sensing joint experiment" (water), "Heihe River Basin Ecological hydrological process integrated remote sensing observation joint experiment" (hiwater), the accumulated station observation data (automatic meteorological station, eddy correlator, large aperture scintillation instrument, etc.), 36 stations (65 station years, distribution map is shown in Figure 1) are selected in combination with multi-source remote sensing data (land cover) Five machine learning methods (regression tree, random forest, artificial neural network, support vector machine, depth belief network) were used to construct different scale expansion models of surface evapotranspiration, and the results showed that: compared with The other four methods, random forest method, are more suitable for the study of the scale expansion of surface evapotranspiration from station to region in Heihe River Basin. Based on the selected random forest scale expansion model, taking remote sensing and air driven data as input, the surface evapotranspiration time-space distribution map (etmap) of Heihe River Basin during the growth season (May to September) from 2012 to 2016 was produced. The results show that the overall accuracy of etmap is good. The RMSE (MAPE) of upstream (las1), midstream (las2-las5) and downstream (las6-las8) are 0.65 mm / day (18.86%), 0.99 mm / day (19.13%) and 0.91 mm / day (22.82%), respectively. In a word, etmap is a high-precision evapotranspiration product in Heihe River Basin, which is based on the observation data of stations and the scale expansion of random forest algorithm. Please refer to Xu et al. (2018) for all station information and scale expansion methods, and Liu et al. (2018) for observation data processing.
The routine meteorological observation data set of four times a day provided by the data management center of Heihe plan is adopted, including 13 stations. The daily evaporation was statistically sorted out, and the monthly evaporation data of 2000-2009 years was calculated. The spatial stability analysis is carried out to calculate the coefficient of variation. If the coefficient of variation is greater than 100%, the geographical weighted regression is used to calculate the relationship between the station and the geographical terrain factors, and the monthly evaporation distribution trend is obtained; if the coefficient of variation is less than or equal to 100%, the common least square regression is used to calculate the relationship between the station evaporation value and the geographical terrain factors (latitude, longitude, elevation, slope, aspect, etc.) After the trend is removed, the residuals are fitted and corrected by HASM (high accuracy surface modeling method). Finally, the monthly average evaporation distribution of the Heihe River Basin in 1961-2010 is obtained by adding the trend surface results and the residual correction results. Time resolution: monthly average evaporation in 2000-2009. Spatial resolution: 500M.
1. Data overview: This data set is eddy covariance Flux data of qilian station from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. 2. Data content: The observation items are: horizontal wind speed Ux (m/s), horizontal wind speed Uy (m/s), vertical wind speed Uz (m/s), ultrasonic temperature Ts (Celsius), co2 concentration co2 (mg/m^3), water vapor concentration h2o (g/m^3), pressure press (KPa), etc.The data is 30min Flux data. 3. Space and time range: Geographical coordinates: longitude: 99° 52’e;Latitude: 38°15 'N;Height: 3232.3 m
This data set contains the eddy related data of Zhangye National Climate Observatory from 2008 to 2009. The station is located in Zhangye, Gansu Province, with longitude and latitude of 100 ° 17 ′ e, 39 ° 05 ′ N and altitude of 1456m. For more information, see the documentation that came with the data.
From June 10, 2011 to September 2, 2011, the observation instrument of 3100m grassland weather station in Tianlaochi watershed of Qilian mountain was a 20cm evaporating pan, a round metal basin with a diameter of 20 cm and a height of 10 cm, and the mouth of the basin was blade-shaped. In order to prevent birds and animals from drinking water, a trumpet-shaped wire mesh ring was set on the upper part of the mouth of the vessel. During measurement, the instrument shall be placed on the shelf with the mouth 70cm from the ground, and quantitative clear water shall be put in every day. After 24 hours, the remaining water quantity shall be measured by the dosage cup, and the reduced water quantity shall be the evaporation capacity. Data are daily evaporation from June 10, 2011 to September 2, 2011.
ET（Evapotranspiration）monitoring is essential for agricultural water management, regional water resources utilization planning, and socio-economic sustainable development.The limitations of the traditional monitoring ET method are mainly that large-area simultaneous observations cannot be made and can only be limited to observation points. Therefore, the cost of personnel and equipment is relatively high, and it is unable to provide ET data on the surface, nor to provide the ET data of different land use types and crop types. Quantitative monitoring of ET can be achieved by remote sensing. The characteristics of remote sensing information are that it can reflect both the macroscopic structural characteristics of the Earth's surface and the microscopic local differences. Monthly evapotranspiration datasets (2000-2013) with 30m spatial resolution over oasis in the Middle Reaches of Heihe River Basin Version 1.0 are based on multi-source remote sensing data. The latest ET Watch model is used to estimate the raster image data. Its temporal resolution is monthly and spatial resolution is 30 meters. The data cover the middle reaches of Zhangye oasis area in millimeters. The data types include month, quarter, and year data. The projection information of the data is as follows: Albers equivalent conical projection, Central meridian: 110 degrees, First secant: 25 degrees, Second secant: 47 degrees, Coordinate west deviation: 4000000 meters. The file naming rules are as follows: Monthly cumulative ET value file name: heihe-midoasis-30m_2013m01_eta.tif Among them, heihe indicates the Heihe River Basin, midoasis indicates the middle oasis area, 30m indicates the resolution is 30 meters, 2013 indicates 2013, m01 indicates January, eta indicates actual evapotranspiration data, and tif indicates that the data is in tif format; The ET value file for each season is named: heihe-midoasis-30m_2013s01_eta.tif Among them, heihe indicates the Heihe River Basin, midoasis indicates the middle oasis area, 30m indicates the resolution is 30 meters, 2013 indicates 2013, s01 indicates 1-3 months, for the first quarter, eta indicates actual evapotranspiration data, and tif indicates that the data is in tif format; The annual cumulative value file name: heihe-midoasis-30m_2013y_eta.tif Among them, heihe indicates the Heihe River Basin, midoasis indicates the middle oasis area, 30m indicates the resolution is 30 meters, 2013 indicates 2013, y indicates the year, eta indicates the actual evapotranspiration data, and tif indicates that the data is in tif format.
This dataset includes 5 sub-datasets obtained from measurements in the flux observing matrix at observing site No.15 (the Daman superstation) and 13. Specifically, the sub-datasets include the following: (1) a dataset that contains atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratio measurements from site No.15 from 27 May to 21 September in 2012, (2) a dataset that contains D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at site No.15 from 27 May to 21 September 2012, (3) a dataset that contains atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios at site No.13 when airborne surveys occurred, and (4) a dataset that contains D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at sites No.13 and 15 when airborne surveys occurred, (5) a dataset that contains the ratios of evaporation and transpiration to evapotranpiration at site No.15. The experiment area was located in a corn cropland in the Daman irrigation district of Zhangye, Gansu Province, China. The positions of observing sites No.15 and 13 were 100.3722° E, 38.8555° N and 100.3785° E, 38.8607° N, respectively, with an elevation of 1552.75 m above sea level. The atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.15 were continuously measured using an in situ observation system. The system consisted of an H218O, HDO and H2O analyzer (Model L1102-i, Picarro Inc.), a CTC HTC-Pal liquid auto sampler (LEAP Technologies) and a multichannel solenoid valve (Model EMT2SD8 MWE, Valco Instruments CO. Inc.). The heights of the two intakes were 0.5 and 1.5 m above the corn canopy. The water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratio analyzer recorded signals at 0.2 Hz; data were recorded for 2 minutes per intake. The data were block-averaged to hourly intervals. The sampling frequency of soil and xylem at site No. 15 was 1-3 days. The atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.13 were measured using a cold traps/mass spectrometer. The sampling frequency of atmospheric water vapor, soil water and xylem water at site No.13 was the same as that of the airborne surveys. Briefly, the Picarro analyzer measurements were calibrated during every 3 h switching cycle using a two-point concentration interpolation procedure in which the water vapor mixing ratio was dynamically controlled to track the ambient water vapor mixing ratio. Possible delta stretching effects were not considered. A schematic diagram of the Picarro analyzer and its operation principles and calibration procedure are described elsewhere in the literature (Huang et al., 2014; Wen et al. 2008, 2012). The dataset of atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic and flux ratios at site No.15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Number (available record number), δD for r1 (δD for the lower intake, ‰), δD for r2 (δD for the higher intake, ‰), δ18O for r1 (δ18O for the lower intake, ‰), δ18O for r2 (δ18O for the higher intake, ‰), vapor mixing ratio for r1 (vapor mixing ratio for the lower intake, mmol/mol), vapor mixing ratio for r2 (vapor mixing ratio for the higher intake, mmol/mol), δET_D (δD of evapotranspiration, ‰), and δET_18O (δ18O of evapotranspiration, ‰). The dataset of D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at site No.15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Remark (treatment: soil without mulch (Ld)=1; soil with mulch (Fm)=2; soil with male corns (F)=3; Xylem=4), δD (‰), and δ18O (‰). The dataset for the ratio of soil evaporation and transpiration to the evapotranspiration at site 15 includes the following variables: Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), E/ET (ratio of soil evaporation to the evapotranspiration, %), and T/ET (ratio of transpiration to the evapotranspiration, %). The mean (±one standard deviation) ratio of transpiration to evapotranspiration was 86.7±5.2% (the range was 71.3 to 96.0%). The mean (±one standard deviation) ratio of soil evaporation to the evapotranspiration was 13.3 ±5.2% (the range was 4.0 to 28.7%). The dataset of atmospheric water vapor D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratio at site No. 13 when airborne surveys occurred includes the following variables: Timestamp1 (start time, timestamp without time zone), Timetamp2 (end time, timestamp without time zone), Height (observation height, cm), δD (‰), and δ18O (‰). The dataset of D/H and 18O/16O isotopic ratios of water in soil and in corn xylem at sites No. 13 and 15 when airborne surveys occurred include the following variables, Timestamp (time, timestamp without time zone), Remark (treatment: soil without mulch (Ld)=1; soil with mulch (Fm)=2; Xylem=4), δD (‰), δ18O (‰), and Location (observing site 13 or 15) . The missing measurements were replaced with -6999. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Wen et al. (2016) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
The object of this dataset is to support the atmospheric correction data for the satellite and airborne remote-sensing. It provides the atmospheric aerosol and the column content of water vapor. The dataset is sectioned into two parts: the conventional observations data and the observations data synchronized with the airborne experiments. The instrument was on the roof of the 7# in the Wuxing Jiayuan community from 1 to 24 in June. After 25 June, it was moved to the ditch in the south of the Supperstaiton 15. The dataset provide the raw observations data and the retrieval data which contains the atmosphere aerosol optical depth (AOD) of the wavebands at the center of 1640 nm, 1020 nm, 936 nm, 870 nm, 670 nm, 500 nm, 440 nm, 380 nm and 340 nm, respectively, and the water vapor content is retrieved from the band data with a centroid wavelength of 936 nm. The continuous data was obtained from the 1 June to 20 September in 2012 with a one minute temporal resolution. The time used in this dataset is in UTC+8 Time. Instrument: The sun photometer is employed to measure the character of atmosphere. In HiWATER, the CE318-NE was used.