This dataset is derived from the paper: Su, T. et al. (2019). No high tibetan plateau until the Neogene. Science Advances, 5(3), eaav2189. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aav2189 This data contains supplementary material of this article. Researchers discovered well-preserved palm fossil leaves from the Lunpola Basin (32.033°N, 89.767°E), central Tibetan Plateau at a present elevation of 4655 m in 2016. Researchers compared the newly discovered fossil with those present fossil that are most similar, find that there is no similar leaves among present fossil, therefore, researchers proposed the new species <em>S. tibetensis</em> T. Su et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov. Using the climate model, combined with the research of the fossil, researchers rebuilt the paleoelevation of the central Tibetan Plateau, it shows that a high plateau cannot have existed in the core of Tibet in the Paleogene. The data contains the following tables: 1) Table S1. Fossil records of palms around the world. 2) Table S2. Morphological comparisons between fossils from Lunpola Basin and modern palm genera. 3) Table S3. Climate ranges of 12 living genera that show the closest morphological similarity to <em>S. tibetensis</em> T. Su et Z.K. Zhou sp. nov. This dataset also contains the figures in the supplementary material in the article.
Daily precipitation data was reconstructed for streamflow simulation in the entire UB by combining orographic and linear correction approaches based on 262 gauge observations. The reconstructed precipitation is used to drive the VIC hydrological model linked with a temperature-index model (VIC-Glacier) , and is inversely evaluated by comparing with observed discharge, glacier area changes, and MODIS-based snow cover faction (SCF) data in the upper Brahmaputra Basin.
SU Fengge SUN He
Data content: including the Tibetan Plateau Lake collections, the genetic diversity map of amphipods. In this project, 620 streams and lakes in the Tibetan Plateau and its surrounding areas were collected and studied for genetic diversity, in order to provide basic data for the protection of water resources and biodiversity of lakes in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Data source and processing method: this data set is the first-hand data, which is generated independently. The sample collection points in this data collection were obtained from four collection surveys conducted by the project team in the Tibetan Plateau from 2017 to 2020. Molecular data is to extract COI sequence from the collected samples as molecular evidence to carry out genetic diversity analysis; the main instrument is PCR, model is mastercycle x50s, manufacturer is Eppendorf. Data quality description: the data set basically covers the Tibetan Plateau and adds samples from the surrounding areas of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Data application achievements and prospects: provide basic data for biodiversity protection.
HOU Zhonge HOU Zhonge
This data set is the data set of climate elements in Hoh Xil area of Qinghai Province, covering the data of 14 observation stations, recording the climate observation data in 1990 in detail. Hoh Xil area in Qinghai Province has a high terrain with an average altitude of over 5000m. The climate is cold, the air is thin and the natural environment is bad. The vast area is still no man's land, known as "forbidden zone for human beings". Due to less interference from human activities, most of the area still maintains its original natural state. Its special geographical location, crustal structure and natural environment, as well as the unique composition of the biological flora, have been the focus of domestic surgical circles. The original data of the data set is digitized from the book "natural environment of Hoh Xil, Qinghai Province". The climate observation data include solar radiation, temperature, precipitation, air pressure, wind speed, etc. This data set provides basic data for the study of Hoh Xil area in Qinghai Province, and has reference value for the research in related fields.
This data set is composed of two sedimentary profiles of Huangyang river a (altitude: 2447 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E) and B (altitude: 2454 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E). Both of them are located in the hilly area at the northern foot of Qilian Mountain, 1km apart. The annual precipitation here is about 500mm, and the annual average temperature is about 2 ℃. The interval between the two slices was 2 cm, and 160 samples were obtained from each slice to analyze the total organic carbon, carbonate content, particle size and other information. The data set is of great significance to the study of paleoclimate / paleoenvironment.
This data set is a collection of statistics on major geological disasters in the Himalayas, the study area starts in Zada County, Guer County of The Ali region in the west, the east side is bounded by the Yalu-Zanbu River, the northern boundary is the Yalu-Zanbu River break, south to the vast Himalayan region of the national boundary. The Himalayas are located in the southwest of China, the southwest of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the world's largest, highest and youngest mountain range, the world's highest peak Mount Qomolangma is located here. Here the geological structure is complex, seismic activity is frequent, the new tectonic movement is strong, the internal and external dynamic geological action is very active, is one of the most serious geological disasters in China. The original data of the data set is digitized from the report of the Remote Sensing Survey of Major Geological Disasters in the Himalayas, and the total number of disaster statistics is more than 540, including three types of disasters: landslides, mudslides and glacial final lake collapses. This data set provides basic data for the study of disaster reduction and prevention in the Himalayas region of Tibet, and is of reference value for research in related fields.
This dataset contains the flux measurements from the large aperture scintillometer (LAS) at Daman Superstation in the Heihe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 31 in 2018. There were two types of LASs at Daman Superstation: BLS900 and RR-RSS460, produced by Germany. The north tower was set up with the BLS900 receiver and the RR-RSS460 transmitter, and the south tower was equipped with the BLS900 transmitter and the RR-RSS460 receiver. The site (north: 100.379° E, 38.861° N; south: 100.369° E, 38.847° N) was located in Daman irrigation district, which is near Zhangye, Gansu Province. The underlying surfaces between the two towers were corn, orchard, and greenhouse. The elevation is 1556 m. The effective height of the LASs was 24.1 m, and the path length was 1854 m. The data were sampled 1 minute at both BLS900 and RR-RSS460. The raw data acquired at 1 min intervals were processed and quality controlled. The data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods, in which sensible heat flux was iteratively calculated by combining Cn2 with meteorological data according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The main quality control steps were as follows: (1) The data were rejected when Cn2 exceeded the saturated criterion (BLS900：Cn2>7.25E-14，RR-RSS460：Cn2>7.84 E-14). (2) The data were rejected when the demodulation signal was small (BLS900：Average X Intensity<1000；RR-RSS460：Demod>-20mv). (3) The data were rejected when collected during precipitation. (4) The data were rejected if collected at night when weak turbulence occurred (u* was less than 0.1 m/s). In the iteration process, the universal functions of Thiermann and Grassl (1992) and Andreas (1988) were selected for BLS900 and RR-RSS460, respectively. Detailed can refer to Liu et al. (2011, 2013). Due to instrument adjustment and inadequate power supply, the date of missing data for the large aperture scintillator is: 2019.01.22-2019.01.24; 2019.03.01-2019.04.26; 2019.10.28-2019.11.14; 2019.11.29-2019.12.20。 Several instructions were included with the released data. (1) The data were primarily obtained from BLS900 measurements, and missing flux measurements from the BLS900 instrument were substituted with measurements from the RR-RSS460 instrument. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) The dataset contained the following variables: Date/time (yyyy/m/d h:mm), the structural parameter of the air refractive index (Cn2, m-2/3), and the sensible heat flux (H, W/m^2). In this dataset, a time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30, and the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin CHE Tao XU Ziwei REN Zhiguo TAN Junlei ZHANG Yang
The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.
This data set takes China as the research area, and the data set includes "decimal_ time”, "lat”, "lon”, "time”, "time_ bounds”, "TWSA_ REC" and "uncertainty" 7 parameters in total. Among them, "decimal_ time” corresponds to decimal time. There are 191 months (163 months for grace data, 17 months for grace-fo data, and 11 months for grace-fo interval) from April 2002 to December 2019. We have not made up for the missing data of individual months between grace or grace-fo data; "LAT" corresponds to the latitude range of the data; "lon" corresponds to the longitude range of the data; "time" corresponds to the annual product day of the data from January 1, 2002; and "time" corresponds to the annual product day of the data from January 1, 2002_ Bounds "; corresponding to the product day of the year corresponding to the start date and end date of each data month. “TWSA_ "REC" is the monthly change of China's regional land water reserves from April 2002 to December 2019; "uncertainty" is the uncertainty between the data and CSR rl06 mascon products. Using grace satellite gravity data CSR grace / grace-fo rl06 mascon solutions (version 02), China Daily grid precipitation real-time analysis system (version 1.0) data, and cn05.1 temperature data sets, the precipitation reconstruction model was established, and the seasonal and trend terms of CSR rl06 mascon products were considered to obtain the data set of land water storage change based on precipitation reconstruction in China. The data quality is good as a whole, and the error of most regions in China is within 5cm. This data set complements the more than one year data gap between grace and grace-fo satellites, and provides a complete time series for long-term land water storage change analysis in China. As the CSR rl06 mascon product, the average value between 2004.0000 and 2009.999 is deducted from this data set. Therefore, the data of 164-174 months (i.e. July 2017 to may 2018) of this data set can be directly extracted as the estimation of land water storage change in the intermittent period.
ZHONG Yulong FENG Wei ZHONG Min MING Zutao
The data include the carbonate content, carbon isotope and oxygen isotope analysis results of inorganic carbonates of 79 samples from 850 m natural section of the middle late Eocene in the salkuli basin. The carbon and oxygen isotopes of carbonate in the sediments record the hydrological and vegetation information in the geological history, which is one of the main indicators of paleoenvironmental tracer research. After grinding and sieving, the carbon and oxygen isotope analysis is completed by the sample processing unit (carbonate device) and MAT252 isotope mass spectrometry online automatic online system. The analytical accuracy of the sample is: carbon isotope is better than ± 0.06 ‰, and oxygen isotope is better than ± 0.08 ‰. Through the analysis of carbon and oxygen isotope data of solkuli section, the evolution history of arid environment since Eocene can be reconstructed, and the paleoclimate effect of the Tibetan Plateau uplift and global climate change can be discussed.
This data set includes the monthly average actual evapotranspiration of the Tibet Plateau from 2001 to 2018. The data set is based on the satellite remote sensing data (MODIS) and reanalysis meteorological data (CMFD), and is calculated by the surface energy balance system model (SEBS). In the process of calculating the turbulent flux, the sub-grid scale topography drag parameterization scheme is introduced to improve the simulation of sensible and latent heat fluxes. In addition, the evapotranspiration of the model is verified by the observation data of six turbulence flux stations on the Tibetan Plateau, which shows high accuracy. The data set can be used to study the characteristics of land-atmosphere interaction and the water cycle in the Tibetan Plateau.
HAN Cunbo MA Yaoming WANG Binbin ZHONG Lei MA Weiqiang* CHEN Xuelong SU Zhongbo
This dataset includes annual mosaics of Antarctic ice velocity derived from Landsat 8 images between December, 2013 and April, 2019, which was updated in 2020 in order to produce multi-year annual ice velocity mosaics and improve the quality of products including non-local means (NLM) filter, and absolute calibration using rock outcrops data. The resulting Version 2 of the mosaics offer reduced local errors, improved spatial resolution as described in the README file.
PML_V2 terrestrial evapotranspiration and total primary productivity dataset, including gross primary product (GPP), vegetation transpiration (Ec), soil evaporation (Es), vaporization of intercepted rainfall , Ei) and water body, ice and snow evaporation (ET_water), a total of 5 elements. The data format is tiff, the space-time resolution is 8 days, 0.05°, and the time span is 2002.07-2019.08. Based on the Penman-Monteith-Leuning (PML) model, PML_V2 is coupled to the GPP process based on stomatal conductance theory. GPP and ET mutually restrict and restrict each other, which makes PML_V2 in ET simulation accuracy, which is greatly improved compared with the previous model. The parameters of PML_V2 are divided into different vegetation types and are determined on 95 vorticity-related flux stations around the world. The parameters were then migrated globally according to the MODIS MCD12Q2.006 IGBP classification. PML_V2 uses GLDAS 2.1 meteorological drive and MODIS leaf area index (LAI), reflectivity (Albedo), emissivity (Emissivity) as inputs, and finally obtains PML_V2 terrestrial evapotranspiration and total primary productivity data sets.
The strong spatial and temporal changes of precipitation often make it impossible to accurately know the spatial distribution and intensity changes of precipitation during the precipitation observation of conventional foundation stations. Satellite microwave remote sensing can overcome this limitation and achieve global scale precipitation and cloud observation. Compared with infrared/visible light, which can only reflect cloud thickness and cloud height, microwave can penetrate the cloud, and also use the interaction between precipitation and cloud particles in the cloud and microwave to detect the cloud and rain more directly. This data use the surface precipitation, obtained by the DPR double wave band precipitation radar carried by GPM, as the true value, soil temperature/humidity of NDVI, DEM and ERA5 as reference data. And the multi-band passive brightness temperature data of GMI is used to invert the instantaneous precipitation intensity during the warm season (May-September) in Tibetan Plateau, then the result is re-sampled to the spatial resolution of 0.1°and accumulated them to a day.
The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded near-surface meteorological dataset that was developed specifically for studies of land surface processes in China. The dataset was made through fusion of remote sensing products, reanalysis dataset and in-situ observation data at weather stations. Its record starts from January 1979 and keeps extending (currently up to December 2018) with a temporal resolution of three hours and a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Seven near-surface meteorological elements are provided in CMFD, including 2-meter air temperature, surface pressure, specific humidity, 10-meter wind speed, downward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation and precipitation rate.
YANG Kun HE Jie
This data set is a spatial and temporal variation map of temperate grassland types in Eurasia, China regional classification map (1980S).The data is in TIF raster format, and the spatial resolution is 1km. The values of the three-level classification of thermal grassland are 1-8, respectively: :1- Temperate meadow grassland;2- Typical temperate grassland;3- Temperate desertification grassland;4- Temperate grassland desert;5- temperate desert and three non-temperate grassland types (6- alpine grassland, 7- other vegetation area, 8- non-vegetation area). Based on the data set of vegetation map of the people's Republic of China (1:1 000 000 000) hosted by the Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and combined with historical and meteorological data, the vegetation map of the people's Republic of China contains 11 vegetation type groups, 55 vegetation types and 960 vegetation types in 1980s Based on the historical meteorological data from 1980 to 1989, combined with satellite data for further analysis and correction, and spatial interpolation calculation, we obtained the three-level classification of temperate grassland in China. The data can be used to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of temperate grassland in Eurasia.
This data is the distribution data of the prehistoric era sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and surrounding areas, which is derived from the Supplementary Maps of the paper: Chen, F.H., Dong, G.H., Zhang, D.J., Liu, X.Y., Jia, X., An, C.B., Ma, M.M., Xie, Y.W., Barton, L., Ren, X.Y., Zhao, Z.J., & Wu, X.H. (2015). Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. SCIENCE, 347, 248-250. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average altitude of more than 4000m, is the highestand largest plateau all around the world, and also is one of the most unsuitable areas for human life with long-term on the earth. The remains at the archaeological site are direct evidences left behind the ancient human activities. The original data of this data is digitized from the results of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau high-textual census and archaeological survey (Qinghai Volume and Tibet Volume of the Chinese Cultural Relics Atlas). The map was digitized mainly based on the distribution maps of the sites, and the latitude and longitude coordinates and altitude were obtained. a total of 6,950 sites, most of which are distributed in the northern part of the plateau. The age range of the site is between 7000BP and 2300BP. This data set is of reference value for the research on the process and power of human diffusion to the Tibetan Plateau in the prehistoric era and other studies related to human activities in the Tibetan Plateau and the prehistoric era.
DONG Guanghui LIU Fengwen
The surface air temperature dataset of the Tibetan Plateau is obtained by downscaling the China regional surface meteorological feature dataset (CRSMFD). It contains the daily mean surface air temperature and 3-hourly instantaneous surface air temperature. This dataset has a spatial resolution of 0.01°. Its time range for surface air temperature dataset is from 1979 to 2018. Spatial dimension of data: 73°E-106°E, 23°N-40°N. The surface air temperature with a 0.01° can serve as an important input for the modeling of land surface processes, such as surface evapotranspiration estimation, agricultural monitoring, and climate change analysis.
DING Lirong ZHOU Ji WANG Wei
High Mountain Asia is the third largest cryosphere on earth other than the Antarctic and Arctic regions. The large amounts of glaciers and snow over the High Mountain Asia play an important role not only on global water cycle but also on water resources and ecology of the arid regions of central Asia. The snowline, as the lower boundary of the snow covered area at the end of melting season, its altitude changes can directly reflect the changes in snow and glaciers. The snowline altitude provides a possibility to rapidly obtain a proxy for their equilibrium line altitude (ELA) which in turn is an indicator for the glacier mass balance. In this dataset, the daily MODIS snow cover products from 2001 to 2019 are used as the main data source. The cloud removal of the daily MODIS snow cover products was firstly carried out based on the developed cubic spline interpolation cloud-removel method, and snow covered days (SCD) are extracted using the cloud-removed MODIS snow cover products. In addition, the MODIS SCD threshold for estimating perennial snow cover is calibrated using the observed data of glacier annual mass balance and Landsat data at the end of melting season. The altitude value of the snowline at the end of melting season is determined by combining the perennial snow cover area and the hypsometric (area-elevation) curve. Finally, the 30km gridded dataset of snowline altitude in the High Mountain Asia during 2001-2019 is generated. This dataset can provide data support for the study of cryosphere and climate change over the High Mountain Asia.
TANG Zhiguang DENG Gang WANG Xiaoru
The data set is the observation of Shiquanhe town in Ali area. The altitude, longitude and latitude of Ali area are 32.50, 80.10 and 4360m respectively. The mass concentration of black carbon in the atmosphere was continuously observed. Ae31 (aethalometer) is used as the measuring instrument. Its observation period is from 12:00:00 on July 13, 2019 to 21:35:00, July 17, 2020. The time resolution is 5 minutes. There is data missing due to instrument failure. The data file includes instrument information, flow parameter setting (LPM) and specific observed concentration. Funded project: Research Fund for the second comprehensive investigation of Qinghai Tibet Plateau, 2019qzkk0602.
ZHU Chongshu HU Tafeng WU Feng WANG Qiyuan ZHANG Ningning DAI Wenting