The freezing / thawing state of near surface soil represents the dormancy and activity of land surface processes. This alternation of freezing and thawing phases can cause a series of complex surface process trajectory mode mutations, and affect the water cycle processes such as soil hydrothermal characteristics, surface runoff and groundwater recharge, and also affect climate change through water and energy cycle mechanism. This data set is based on AMSR-E and amsr2 passive microwave data, using discriminant algorithm to prepare global near earth surface freeze-thaw state (spatial resolution: 0.25 °; time span: 2002-2019), data storage type: 8-bit unsigned integer (file type:. HDF5) 5) Among them: 0: water body and missing data; 1: frozen soil; 2: thawed soil; 3: precipitation; 15: perennial snow and ice sheet. It can be used to analyze the spatial distribution and trend of the global freeze-thaw cycle, such as the start / end date, freezing / thawing duration, freezing range and other indicators. It can provide data support for understanding the interaction mechanism between land surface freeze-thaw cycle and water and energy exchange process under the background of global change. For detailed naming and missing of data, please refer to the data description.
Precipitation estimates with ﬁne quality and spatio-temporal resolutions play signiﬁcant roles in understanding the global and regional cycles of water, carbon, and energy. Satellite-based precipitation products are capable of detecting spatial patterns and temporal variations of precipitation at ﬁne resolutions, which is particularly useful over poorly gauged regions. However, satellite-based precipitation products are the indirect estimates of precipitation, inherently containing regional and seasonal systematic biases and random errors. Focusing on the potential drawbacks in generating Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG) and its recently updated retrospective IMERG in the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) era (ﬁnished in July 2019), which were only calibrated at a monthly scale using ground observations, Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC, 1.0◦/monthly), we aim to propose a new calibration algorithm for IMERG at a daily scale and to provide a new AIMERG precipitation dataset (0.1◦/half-hourly, 2000–2015, Asia) with better quality, calibrated by Asian Precipitation – Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE, 0.25◦/daily) at the daily scale for the Asian applications. Considering the advantages from both satellite-based precipitation estimates and the ground observations, AIMERG performs better than IMERG at different spatio-temporal scales, in terms of both systematic biases and random errors, over mainland China.
This product is based on multi-source remote sensing DEM data generation. The steps are as follows: select control points in relatively stable and flat terrain area with Landsat ETM +, SRTM and ICESat remote sensing data as reference. The horizontal coordinates of the control points are obtained with Landsat ETM + l1t panchromatic image as the horizontal reference. The height coordinates of the control points are mainly obtained by ICESat gla14 elevation data, and are supplemented by SRTM elevation data in areas without ICESat distribution. Using the selected control points and automatically generated connection points, the lens distortion and residual deformation are compensated by Brown's physical model, so that the total RMSE of all stereo image pairs in the aerial triangulation results is less than 1 pixel. In order to edit the extracted DEM data to eliminate the obvious elevation abnormal value, DEM Interpolation, DEM filtering and DEM smoothing are used to edit the DEM on the glacier, and kh-9 DEM data in the West Kunlun West and West Kunlun east regions are spliced to form products.
First of all, the data of ice cover elevation change is obtained by using the data of glas12 in 2004 and 2008. In ideal case, each track is strictly repeated. However, due to the track deviation, it can not be guaranteed that the track is strictly repeated according to the design. The deviation varies from several meters to several hundred meters. The grid of 500m * 500m is taken, and the point falling in the same grid is considered as the weight of the repeated track. The elevation change in 2004-2008 is obtained by subtraction of complex points, and the annual elevation change is obtained. Ice sheet elevation change data
Based on the sentinel-1 hyperspectral wide-band SAR data, using the proposed u-net ice fissure detection method, the ice fissure elevation data of the north and south polar ice sheet are formed. Firstly, the data preprocessing of sentinel-1 hyperspectral wide-band SAR includes radiometric calibration, ice cover range determination and speckle noise removal. In order to suppress the speckle noise of SAR data, and to ensure the ice fracture characteristics, we use ppb method to remove multiplicative noise. This method can not only effectively remove spots, but also retain the characteristics of ice cracks. Secondly, we use the u-net based ice crack detection algorithm to extract ice cracks. In order to obtain the correct ice fracture SAR data samples, we select the SAR samples by comparing the high-resolution optical data of ice fracture to form the ice fracture SAR data samples. Based on the SAR data of ice fracture area and non ice fracture area, we use u-net method to extract ice fracture. Finally, we geocode the detected ice fracture data to form the ice fracture products of the north and south polar.
The total solar radiation and the total radiation of absorption and scattering material attenuation are measured by the international general solar radiation meter (li200sz, li-cor, Inc., USA). The measured data are total solar radiation, including direct and diffuse solar radiation, with a wavelength range of 400-1100nm. The unit of measurement is w / m2, and the typical error is ± 3% (incidence angle is within 60 °) under natural lighting. The data of sodankyl ä station in the Arctic comes from cooperation with the site and website download. The coverage time of sodankyl ä station in the Arctic is updated to 2018.
A high-resolution remote sensing image mosaic of the entire Antarctic was generated by synthesizing the 1073 images taken by American Landsat 7 during 1999 to 2003 and the medium-resolution MODIS image (taken in 2005) covering south of 82.5°southern latitude. Based on the mosaic, combined with the needs of Antarctic scientific research, Antarctica land cover was divided into six types using the combination method of computer automatic interpretation and artificial assistance. They were blue ice, fissures, bare rocks, water bodies, moraines and firns, and the areas and proportions of the above types were 225,207.29 square kilometers (1.651%), 7153.36 square kilometers (0.052%), 72,958.04 square kilometers (0.535%), 189.43 square kilometers (0.001%), 310.76 square kilometers (0.003%), and 13337392.66 square kilometers (97.758%), respectively. The map is a satellite image map of approximate true color synthesis, and the regions of various cover types are represented by different color blocks. The map mainly provides a reference for popular scientific research, geography education and science popularization.
Solar radiation data were obtained using the internationally accepted solar radiation meter (LI200SZ, LI-COR, Inc., USA). The measured data are total solar radiation, including direct and diffuse solar radiation, with a wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The units of the measurement results are W/㎡, and the typical error under natural lighting is ±3% (within an incident angle of 60°). Data from different locations in the three poles (Everest Station and Namco Station on the Tibetan Plateau, Sodankylä Station in the Arctic, and Dome A Station in the Antarctic) are derived from site cooperation and website downloads. The temporal coverage of data from the Everest Station and Namco Station on the Tibetan Plateau is from 2009 to 2016, that from the Sodankylä Station in the Arctic is from 2001 to 2017, and that from the Dome A Station in the Antarctic is from 2005 to 2014.
The aerosol optical thickness data of Qomolangma station and Namuco station in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is based on the observation data products of Qomolangma station and Namuco station from the atmospheric radiation view of the Institute of Qinghai Tibet Plateau of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The data coverage time is from 2017 to 2019, the time resolution is hour by hour, the coverage sites are Qomolangma station and Namuco station, the longitude and latitude coordinates are (Qomolangma station: 28.365n, 86.948e, Namuco station Mucuo station: 30.7725n, 90.9626e). The source of the observed data is retrieved from the radiation data observed by mfrsr instrument. The characteristic variable is aerosol optical thickness, and the error range of the observed inversion is about 15%. The data format is TXT.
From 1000 AD to the present, the concentration of methane in the atmosphere has increased significantly in the ice cores of the Antarctic and Arctic. These data came from the Tasmanian laboratory of Australia, where the high resolution data were obtained by using wet extraction of ice core samples, and the same measurement and calibration procedures were applied to all samples. The results are consistent with the results of internationally renowned ice core greenhouse gas laboratories such as the University of Bern, the University of Copenhagen and the University of Ohio. The physical meaning of each variable: First column: time; second column: methane concentration value
Vegetation survey data is essential to study the structure and function of the ecosystems. The North Tibet is abundant in grassland ecosystems, including alpine meadow, alpine grassland, and alpine degraded grassland. Due to the unique geographical location, high altitude and anoxic environment, the community survey data in the North Tibetan Plateau is relatively rare. Based on the accumulation of preliminary work, the research team carried out a more comprehensive vegetation survey in 15 counties of the North Tibetan Plateau in the growing season of 2017. This data set includes biomass data inside and outside the fences of the 23 sampling plots from Nagqu to Ritu of the North Tibet Transect. This data set can be used for productivity spatial analysis and mode calibration.
ZHANG Xianzhou NIU Ben
Lake ice phenology is a seasonal cyclical feature that describes lake ice coverage. The change of lake ice phenology is an important part of carbon, water and energy process study, and one of the sensitive factors of climate change. This dataset is a lake ice phenology based on passive microwave inversion, including lake ice phenology of 200 lakes in the Tibetan Plateau and high latitudes area of the Northern Hemisphere from 2002 to 2018 (including freeze-up start date, freeze-up end date, break-up start date, and break-up end date of the lakes), data of some lakes can date back to 1978. This data is basically consistent with the MODIS monitoring results from the same time with an interpretation error of 2-4 days. Users can use this data to conduct climate change study in the Northern Hemisphere.
All data in this data set are original data, including meteorological and soil moisture content, stem sap flow, water potential of plant tissue, isotope characteristics of atmospheric and humidified water vapor, fluorescence tracer image, plant photosynthetic fluorescence, and basic data of five desert plants, Tamarix chinensis, Haloxylon ammodendron, Bawang, Nitraria tangutorum and red sand, which are related to field and indoor control experiments Because of the data of expression regulation. 1. Isotopic data of Tamarix chinensis. After humidifying for 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours, the tissue samples of indoor and outdoor plants of plexiglass were collected at the same time. The samples were put forward and processed by low-temperature vacuum distillation glass water extraction system, and then used euro The isotopic data were measured by ea3000 element analyzer and isoprime gas stability mass spectrometer. Tamarix Tamarix samples were collected from Sitan village, Jingtai County, including humidification and control samples. The variation data of isotopic composition can be used to determine the way and amount of water vapor absorbed by plant leaves. 2. Fluorescence section photo data: all the data in this data set are original data, including the structural photos under high-power microscope of Tamarix, Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitraria, Bawang, Hongsha and other desert plant leaves in Sitan village of Jingtai County and Ejin Banner. The specific method is as follows: apply fluorescent dye to the surface of desert plant leaves before humidification, collect plant leaves and stems after humidification for 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours, put them in liquid nitrogen, take them back to the laboratory, observe and take photos with fluorescence microscope. It can be used to analyze the tissue and organs of water absorption by desert plant leaves and the direction and path of water migration in plants. 3: Gene transcription and expression data: transcription and expression data of Tamarix chinensis, data collection time: May 25, 2014, location: Sitan village, Jingtai County, Gansu Province, data analysis platform: lllumina hisep TM 2000 platform, obtained by transcriptome analysis of baimaike company. 4. Photosynthetic and fluorescence data: photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters measured by photosynthetic apparatus in the field (Sitan village and Ejin Banner, Jingtai County). 5. Sap flow and environmental data: all data are original data. Sap flow data of desert plants measured by stem flow meter, including Tamarix chinensis, Haloxylon ammodendron, Nitraria tangutorum, red sand and other desert plants (Sitan village, Jingtai County and Ejin Banner), and environmental data monitored by automatic weather station, including temperature and humidity.
This dataset includes component temperatures measured by the thermal infrared (TIR) radiometers at the Mixed Forest and Sidaoqiao stations between 22 July, 2014 and 19 July, 2016. The Mixed Forest (101.1335 °E, 41.9903 °N, 874 m.a.s.l.) and Sidaoqiao (101.1374 °E, 42.0012 °N, 873 m.a.s.l.) stations were located in the downstream of the Heihe River basin, Dalaihubu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia. At the Mixed Forest station, two TIR radiometers (SI-111, Apogee Instruments Inc., USA) connected to a data logger (CR800, Campbell Scientific Inc., USA) measured component temperatures of the sunlit canopy and shaded canopy. TIR radiometers were mounted horizontally at 5 m height on iron rods just south and north of a tree and pointed to its canopy. The distance from the sensor to the canopy was ~1 m. At the Sidaoqiao station, two SI-111 TIR radiometers connected to a CR800 data logger measured component temperatures of the soil and shrub. The first sensor pointed from 2 m height under a viewing zenith angle of 45° to bare soil; the second sensor was mounted at 1-m height and pointed horizontally into the shrub canopy.
This dataset includes component temperatures measured by the thermal imager at the Mixed Forest and Sidaoqiao stations between 23 July and 18 August, 2014. The Mixed Forest (101.1335 °E, 41.9903 °N, 874 m.a.s.l.) and Sidaoqiao (101.1374 °E, 42.0012 °N, 873 m.a.s.l.) stations were located in the downstream of the Heihe River basin, Dalaihubu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia. At the Mixed Forest station, a Testo 890-2 thermal imager (Testo Inc., Germany) with a resolution of 640 × 480 pixels was employed to acquire brightness temperature images. The imager was manually operated from a 10-m height platform of the tower between 10:00-16:00 (China Standard Time, CST) with an observation interval of 1-h on cloudless days. On August 4th observations were acquired between 11:00 and 17:00 at an interval of 10-min to match observations acquired with an airborne TIR imager. The ground based imager was pointed to five viewing directions (southeast-SE, east-E, northeast-NE, northwest-NW, and southwest-SW) and was inclined 25°–45° below the horizon depending on viewing direction. At Sidaoqiao station, a Testo 875-2i imager (Testo Inc., Germany) with a resolution of 160 × 120 pixels was manually operated from a 10-m high platform to acquire brightness temperature images in directions SW, SE, NE, and NW. Depending on the targets in each viewing direction, the imager was inclined to 30°–45° below the horizon. Observations at Sidaoqiao and Mixed Forest stations were almost synchronous. Furthermore, visible images were taken simultaneously with the aforementioned two TIR imagers (2048 × 1536 pixels for Testo 890-2 and 640 × 480 pixels for Testo 875-2i).
This data set includes the 2015 observation data of 9 water net nodes in the 5.5km × 5.5km observation matrix (red box in the thumbnail) of Yingke / Daman irrigation area in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The nine nodes contain 4cm and 10cm two-layer hydro probe II probes to observe the main variables such as soil moisture, soil temperature, conductivity and complex permittivity; the si-111 infrared temperature probe is set up at 4m height to observe the surface radiation infrared temperature of the underlying surface. The observation time frequency is 5 minutes. This data set can provide spatiotemporal continuous observation data set for remote sensing estimation of key water and heat variables of heterogeneous surface, remote sensing authenticity test, ecological hydrology research, irrigation optimization management and other research.
JIN Rui KANG Jian LI Xin MA Mingguo
The dataset is the field soil measurement and analysis data of the upstream of Heihe River Basin from 2013 to 2014, including soil particle analysis, water characteristic curve, saturated water conductivity, soil porosity, infiltration analysis, and soil bulk density I. Soil particle analysis 1. The soil particle size data were measured in the particle size laboratory of the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education, West Ministry of Lanzhou University.The measuring instrument is Marvin laser particle size meter MS2000. 2. Particle size data were measured by laser particle size analyzer.As a result, sample points with large particles cannot be measured, such as D23 and D25 cannot be measured without data.Plus partial sample missing. Ii. Soil moisture characteristic curve 1. Centrifuge method: The unaltered soil of the ring-cutter collected in the field was put into the centrifuge, and the rotor weight of each time was measured with the rotation speed of 0, 310, 980, 1700, 2190, 2770, 3100, 5370, 6930, 8200 and 11600 respectively. 2. The ring cutter is numbered from 1 to the back according to the number. Since three groups are sampled at different places at the same time, in order to avoid repeated numbering, the first group is numbered from 1, the second group is numbered from 500, and the third group is numbered from 1000.It's consistent with the number of the sampling point.You can find the corresponding number in the two Excel. 3. The soil bulk density data in 2013 is supplementary to the sampling in 2012, so the data are not available at every point.At the same time, the soil layer of some sample points is not up to 70 cm thick, so the data of 5 layers cannot be taken. At the same time, a large part of data is missing due to transportation and recording problems.At the same time, only one layer of data is selected by random points. 4. Weight after drying: The drying weight of some samples was not measured due to problems with the oven during the experiment. 3. Saturated water conductivity of soil 1. Description of measurement method: The measurement method is based on the self-made instrument of Yiyanli (2009) for fixing water hair.The mariot bottle was used to keep the constant water head during the experiment.At the same time, the measured Ks was finally converted to the Ks value at 10℃ for analysis and calculation.Detailed measurement record table refer to saturation conductivity measurement description.K10℃ is the data of saturated water conductivity after conversion to 10℃.Unit: cm/min. 2. Data loss explanation: The data of saturated water conductivity is partly due to the lack of soil samples and the insufficient depth of the soil layer to obtain the data of the 4th or 5th layer 3. Sampling time: July 2014 4. Soil porosity 1. Use bulk density method to deduce: according to the relationship between soil bulk density and soil porosity. 2. The data in 2014 is supplementary to the sampling in 2012, so the data are not available at every point.At the same time, the soil layer of some sample points is not up to 70 cm thick, so the data of 5 layers cannot be taken. At the same time, a large part of data is missing due to transportation and recording problems.At the same time, only one layer of data is selected by random points. 5. Soil infiltration analysis 1. The infiltration data were measured by the "MINI DISK PORTABLE specific vector INFILTROMETER".The approximate saturation water conductivity under a certain negative pressure is obtained.The instrument is detailed in website: http://www.decagon.com/products/hydrology/hydraulic-conductivity/mini-disk-portable-tension-infiltrometer/ 2.D7 infiltration tests were not measured at that time because of rain. Vi. Soil bulk density 1. The bulk density of soil in 2014 refers to the undisturbed soil taken by ring cutter based on the basis of 2012. 2. The soil bulk density is dry soil bulk density, which is measured by drying method.The undisturbed ring-knife soil samples collected in the field were kept in an oven at 105℃ for 24 hours, and the dry weight of the soil was divided by the soil volume (100 cubic centimeters). 3. Unit: G /cm3
The experimental data of Yingke Daman in Heihe River Basin is supported by the key fund project of Heihe River plan, "eco hydrological effect of agricultural water saving in Heihe River Basin and multi-scale water use efficiency evaluation". Including: soil bulk density, soil water content, soil texture, corn sample biomass, cross-section flow, etc Data Description: 1. Sampling location of Lai and aboveground biomass: Yingke irrigation district; sampling time: May 2012 to September 2012; Lai and aboveground biomass of maize were measured by canopy analyzer (lp-80), and aboveground biomass was measured by sampling drying method; sample number: 16. 2. Soil texture: Sampling location: Yingke irrigation district and Shiqiao Wudou Er Nongqu farmland in Yingke irrigation district; soil sampling depth is 140 cm, sampling levels are 0-20 cm every 10 cm, 20-80 cm every 20 cm, 80-140 cm every 30 cm; sampling time: 2012; measurement method: laboratory laser particle size analyzer; sample number: 38. 3. Soil bulk density: Sampling location: Yingke irrigation district and Daman irrigation district; sampling depth of soil bulk density is 100 cm, sampling levels are 0-50 cm and 50-100 cm respectively; sampling time: 2012; measurement method: ring knife method; number of sample points: 34. 4. Soil moisture content: this data is part of the monitoring content of hydrological elements in Yingke irrigation district. The specific sampling location is: Shiqiao Wudou Er Nongqu farmland in Yingke Irrigation District, planting corn for seed production; soil moisture sampling depth is 140 cm, sampling levels are 0-20 cm every 10 cm, 20-80 cm every 20 cm, 80-140 cm every 30 cm Methods: soil drying method and TDR measurement; sample number: 17. 5. Cross section flow: Sampling location: the farmland of Wudou Er Nong canal in Shiqiao, Yingke irrigation district; measure the flow velocity, water level and water temperature of different canal system sections during each irrigation, record the time and calculated flow, monitor once every 3 hours until the end of irrigation; sampling time: 2012.5-2012.9; measurement method: Doppler ultrasonic flow velocity meter (hoh-l-01, Measurement times: Yingke irrigation data of four times.
HUANG Guanhua JIANG Yao
This dataset includes three scenes, covering the artificial oasis eco-hydrology experimental area of the Heihe River Basin, which were acquired on (yy-mm-dd hh:mm, BJT) 2012-07-25 07:12, 2012-07-28 19:55, 2012-08-02 07:12. The data were all acquired at PingPong mode with product level of SLC, and these three images are of VV/VH, HH/HV and VV/VH polarization, respectively. COSMO-SkyMed dataset was acquired from Italian Space Agency (ASI) “COSMO-SkyMed project 1720: HYDROCOSMO” (Courtesy: Prof. Shi Jiancheng from the State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science of China).
Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI)
This dataset includes one scene acquired on (yy-mm-dd) 2012-09-06, covering the natural oasis eco-hydrology experimental area in the lower reaches of the Heihe River Basin. This datum contains panchromatic and multi-spectral bands, with spatial resolution of 2.5 m and 10 m, respectively. The data product level of this image is Level 1. QuickBird dataset was acquired through purchase.
China Centre for Resources Satellite Data and Application