"Digital data including slope and aspect (slope and aspect) data are the basic data of GIS, and can be used as two important indicators to describe the terrain feature information, which can not only indirectly express the relief shape and structure of the terrain, It includes hydrological model, landslide monitoring and analysis, surface material movement, soil erosion, land use planning, etc The basic data of geoscience analysis model. At present, slope and aspect data are generally calculated by certain calculation model on digital elevation model (DEM). This data takes 34 key nodes of Pan third pole as the research area, takes DEM data with resolution of 30 meters as the base, realizes the digital simulation of slope and aspect in terrain data (that is, the digital expression of slope and aspect in terrain surface data), and finally obtains the slope and aspect data of pan third pole key nodes. The data area is 34 key nodes of Pan third pole (Abbas, Astana, Colombo, Gwadar, Mengba, Teheran, Vientiane, etc.).
The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.
Based on the long-term observation data of each field station in the alpine network and overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; the inversion of data products such as meteorological elements, lake water quantity and quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacial and frozen soil changes are completed through enhanced observation and sample site verification in key regions; based on the IOT Network technology, the development and establishment of multi station network meteorological, hydrological, ecological data management platform, to achieve real-time access to network data and remote control and sharing. The data includes the daily meteorological observation data sets (air temperature, precipitation, wind direction and speed, relative humidity, air pressure, radiation and evaporation) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2014-2017 from 17 stations of China Alpine network. The data of the three river sources are missing.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
This data set contains the selection criteria and database of international fragile ecosystem national parks. Typical countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, South Africa and Tanzania are selected as representatives Table 1 includes: selection criteria for different levels, including 4 indicators for the first level, 16 indicators for the second level, and 72 indicators for the third level; Table 2 includes the list of national parks in typical countries such as the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, South Africa, Tanzania and other typical countries, and the selected indicators include the country, the name of the National Park, the protected time and supervision time, area, description, IUCN management type, governance type, management organization and international standards.
This map was compiled by Li Xin and others in 2008 in order to re-count the permafrost area in China and based on the analysis of the existing permafrost map in China. It consists of three parts, of which the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau part uses the simulated permafrost map of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (Nanzhuo Copper, 2002), the northeast part comes from the "14 million map of China's Glacier, Frozen Soil and Desert" (Institute of Environment and Engineering in Cold and Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2006), and the other part uses the map of China's permafrost zoning and types (1: 10 million) (Zhou Youwu and others, 2000). More Information References (Institute of Environment and Engineering in Cold and Arid Regions, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 2006; Nanzhuo Copper, 2002; Zhou Youwu et al., 2000; Li et al, 2008）。
LI Xin NAN Zhuotong ZHOU Youwu
The dataset partially used in the study of paper 2018GC007986 includes S receiver functions derived from 48 permanent stations and 11 stations of a temporary HY array deployed in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. The dataset as a zipped file contains one folder, two files including NETibet_SRF.QBN and NETibet_SRF.QHD. A spiking deconvolution in the time domain is used to calculate the P and S receiver functions, all the S receiver functions have been visually inspected to remove the bad traces that obviously different from the majority. The dataset is applied to explore the lithospheric structure and understand the mechanism of northeastern expansion and growth of NE Tibetan Plateau.
The distribution data of Central Asia desert oil and gas fields are in the form of vector data in ". SHP". Including the distribution of oil and gas fields and major urban settlements in the five Central Asian countries. The data is extracted and cut from modis-mcd12q product. The spatial resolution of the product is 500 m, and the time resolution is 1 year. IGBP global vegetation classification scheme is adopted as the classification standard. The scheme is divided into 17 land cover types, among which the urban data uses the construction and urban land in the scheme. The data can provide data support for the assessment and prevention of sandstorm disasters in Central Asia desert oil and gas fields and green town.
Surface albedo is a critical parameter in land surface energy balance. This dataset provides the monthly land surface albedo of UAV remote sensing for typical ground stations in the middle reaches of Heihe river basin during the vegetation growth stage in 2019. The algorithm for calculating albedo is an empirical method, which was developed based on a comprehensive forward simulation dataset based on 6S model and typical spectrums. This method can effectively transform the surface reflectance to the broadband surface albedo. The method was then applied to the surface reflectance acquired by UAV multi-spectral sensor and the broadband surface albedo with a 0.2-m spatial resolution was eventually obtained.
ZHOU Ji LIU Shaomin DONG Weishen
The time coverage of this data is (1961-1990). The station data set includes 222 stations of precipitation data and 202 stations of temperature data. In order to fill the meteorological data in the surrounding area of Xinjiang in the study area, this data set uses the Central Asia Temperature and Precipitation Data (1879-2003), and some site data of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Mongolia (Global Historical Climate Network) and CRU dataset, in addition to the Xinjiang Meteorological Data Set, Qinghai, and Gansu Daily Data. There is a large amount of missing data in the used dataset, which will affect the accuracy of the grid data generated by the extrapolation method. Therefore, this article deletes sites with consecutive missing years, and uses sites adjacent to the site to replace missing sites with fewer years (less than 3 years). For sites where the spatial distribution of sites is too sparse, BP neural network is used to fit and reconstruct sites with severely missing data, such as Tazhong (51747), Andi Township (51848), and Hangya (51915). Based on the pre-processed data, the interpolation method of this data set is the Cressman objective analysis method. The monthly average temperature and monthly precipitation are extrapolated to the study area, and the grid period observation data with a horizontal resolution of 0.5 ° is obtained. This data contains two files: temperature data of xinjiangtemp.nc and precipitation data of xinjiangpre2.nc.
BAI Lei LI Lanhai CHEN Xi Meng Xianyong LI Xuemei
This data is derived from the Supplementary Tables of the paper: Chen, F. H., Welker, F., Shen, C. C., Bailey, S. E., Bergmann, I., Davis, S., Xia, H., Wang, H., Fischer, R., Freidline, S. E., Yu, T. L., Skinner, M. M., Stelzer, S., Dong, G. R., Fu, Q. M., Dong, G. H., Wang, J., Zhang, D. J., & Hublin, J. J. (2019). A late Middle Pleistocene Denisovan mandible from the Tibetan Plateau. Nature, 569, 409-412. This research is another breakthrough made by academician Fahu Chen and his team over the years research of human activities and environmental adaptation on the Tibetan Plateau. The research team analyzed the newly discovered hominid mandible fossils in Xiahe County, Gansu Province, China, and identified it belongs to Denisovan of the Tibetan Plateau, which suggested to call Xiahe Denisovan. The team conducted a multidisciplinary analysis of the fossil, including chronology, physique morphology, molecular archaeology, living environment and human adaptation. It is the first Denisovan fossil found outside the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains and the earliest evidence of human activity on the Tibetan Plateau (160 kyr BP). This study provides key evidence for further study of Denisovans' physical characteristics and distribution in East Asia, it also provides evidence of a deep evolutionary history of these archaic hominins within the challenging environment of the Tibetan Plateau. This data contains 6 tables, table name and contents are as follows: t1: Distances in mm between meshes generated from CT versus photoscans (PS). t2: Measurements of the Xiahe mandible after reconstruction. t3: Comparative Dental metrics. t4: Comparative crown morphology. t5: Uniprot accession numbers for protein sequences of extant primates used in the phylogenetic analyses. t6: Specimen names and numbers.
This data provides the annual lake area of 582 lakes with an area greater than 1 km2 in the enorheic basin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from 1986 to 2019. First, based on JRC and SRTM DEM data, 582 lakes are identified in the area that are larger than 1 km2. All Landsat 5/7/8 remote sensing images covering a lake are used to make annual composite images. NDWI index and Ostu algorithm were used to dynamically segment lakes, and the size of each lake from 1986 to 2019 is then calculated. This study is based on the Landsat satellite remote sensing images, and using Google Earth Engine allowed us to process all Landsat images available to create the most complete annual lake area data set of more than 1 km2 in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area; A set of lake area automatic extraction algorithms were developed to calculate of the area of a lake for many years; This data is of great significance for the analysis of lake area dynamics and water balance in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region, as well as the study of the climate change of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau lake.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
The data include the coastal ports and airport distribution in the Belt and Road region. The data are from the Natural Earth global port and airport data. The data are cut according to the standard map of the 65 countries along the Belt and road, and further corrected, then the distribution of the ports and airports in the area along the B&R is obtained. This data is mainly one to analyze the B&R area's important spatial layout and main characteristics of the transportation facilities, and to get other attributes data of port and airport in the following research, including the throughput of different port cargo types, the incoming and outgoing throughput, the number of docks and berths, the number of passengers on the airport, the data of the flights and routes of ports and airports, we can get further understanding of the spatial differentiation of the distribution of ports and airports in the B&R region.
1) Data content (including elements and significance): 19 stations (South-East Tibetan station, Namucuo station, Qomolangma station, Medog station, Ngari station, Naqu station（ITPCAS）, Golmud station, Tianshan station, Qilianshan station, Ruoergai station(NIEER) , Yulong Xueshan station, Naqu station(NIEER), Haibei Station, Sanjiangyuan station, Shenzha station, Ruoergai station (CIB), Naqu station(IG SNRR), Lhasa station，Qinghai lake station) Meteorological observation data sets (temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, radiation and evaporation) of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2019 2) Data source and processing method: field observation excel format of 19 stations in Alpine network 3) Data quality description: Daily resolution of stations 4) Achievements and prospects of data application: Based on the long-term observation data of the field stations in the alpine network and the overseas stations in the pan third polar region, a series of data sets of meteorological, hydrological and ecological elements in the pan third polar region are established; through the intensive observation and sample plot verification in key areas, the meteorological elements, lake water and water quality, aboveground vegetation biomass, glacier and frozen soil changes are completed According to the inversion of products; based on the technology of Internet of things, the meteorological, hydrological and ecological data management platform with multi station networking is developed to realize real-time acquisition, remote control and sharing of online data.
ZHU Liping PENG Ping
This data set is the hydrogen isotope data of leaf wax from 10 m core of Qinghai Lake in Tengchong, Southeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Tengchong Qinghai Lake is a small crater lake in Gaoligong Mountain, Southwest China. Core samples were collected at about 4m in the center of the lake in 2017. Ams-14c dating was used to establish the age series. The n-alkane leaf wax hydrogen isotope was determined and analyzed by Agilent 6890 GC gas chromatograph and Deltaplus XL type chromatography isotope mass spectrometry. The data reflect the information of atmospheric precipitation isotope in this area, and play an important role in the study of monsoon precipitation changes in southwest monsoon region in the past 40000 years. Data acquisition, pre-processing extraction and instrument testing were completed in strict accordance with the relevant operating procedures.
Lake sediment is important archive for reconstructing the past climate change, in which the chronological framework of sediments is the basis. Varve is a kind of sedimentary lamina formed in pairs in lake sediments, usually with one year as a cycle. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, the authors obtained a 1-meter long sediment gravity core from Jiangco in the central Tibet Plateau, and found well preserved varves. Subsequently, core thin sections were made, and the varve and its thickness were counted and measured to obtain the chronological sequence from 81 A.D. to 2015. The precipitation in this area in the past 2000 years has been reconstructed by using the percentage of coarse-grained layer thickness in the total varve thickness, which represents the precipitation. High resolution and high-precision chronology and precipitation records can provide reliable background of climate and environmental change, and provide reference for paleoclimate simulation and the rise and fall of ancient civilization.
The dataset contains the phenological camera observation data of the Xiyinghe station in the midstream of Shiyanghe integrated observatory network from January 1 to December 31, 2019. The instrument was developed and data processed by Beijing Normal University. The phenomenon camera integrates data acquisition and data transmission functions. The camera captures data by look-downward with a resolution of 1280×720. For the calculation of the greenness index and phenology, the relative greenness index (GCC, Green Chromatic Coordinate, calculated by GCC=G/(R+G+B)) needs to be calculated according to the region of interest, then the invalid value filling and filtering smoothing are performed, and finally the key phenological parameters are determined according to the growth curve fitting, such as the growth season start date, Peak, growth season end, etc. For coverage, first, select images with less intense illumination, then divide the image into vegetation and soil, calculate the proportion of vegetation pixels in each image in the calculation area. After the time series data is extracted, the original coverage data is smoothed and filtered according to the time window specified by the user, and the filtered result is the final time series coverage. This data set includes relative greenness index (Gcc), phenological period and coverage (Fc).
ZHAO Changming ZHANG Renyi
This dataset contains daily 0.05°×0.05° land surface soil moisture products in Qilian Mountain Area in 2018. The dataset was produced by utilizing the multivariate statistical regression model to downscale the “AMSR-E and AMSR2 TB-based SMAP Time-Expanded Daily 0.25°×0.25° Land Surface Soil Moisture Dataset in Qilian Mountain Area (SMsmapTE, V1)”. The auxiliary datasets participating in the multivariate statistical regression include GLASS Albedo/LAI/FVC, 1km all-weather surface temperature data in western China by Ji Zhou and Lat/Lon information.
CHAI Linna ZHU Zhongli LIU Shaomin
Inland water system and river basin regional dataset are the key hydrological parameters in the study of global change. Waterr distribution is of great significance to the study of the characteristics, morphological characteristics, changes, time distribution of various types of water bodies at the nodes, and the law of regional differentiation. The basic data is downloaded from DIVA-GIS, and is subset and resampled by administrative boundary dataset of all 31 key nodes as the research areas. The data concludes the distribution of lakes and reservoirs (planar River system) and rivers (linear River basin) . Finally, the data of water system and river basin in 31 key node regions are stored and obtained. This data set serves as the research basis for all hydrological remote sensing data and provides hydrological base data for the project. This data set can be updated in real time according to the government information and the changing trend of water system where node is located.
The Administrative boundary dataset is the base in the global change research, and it is important for the whole project.At present, DIVA-GIS is the basic source of administrative boundary. Whole national administrative boundary shapefiles were downloaded from DIVA-GIS. Based on the official administrative units (municipalities) as the basic units, the administrative units at the higher level (provincial level) where the municipalities are located are stored and reserved as the research objects.If the provincial unit area of the node has exceeded 10,000 square kilometers, the provincial unit will be retained as the research area. At the same time, if the provincial unit area of the node is small, then considering the political and economic impact of the provincial level and its surrounding areas, neighboring provincial units are also combined by merging and retaining to at least 10,000 square kilometers as the research object. Finally, the administrative region data of all 31 key node regions (Abbas, Alexander, Ankara, Astana, Bangkok, Chittagong, Colombo, Dhaka, Djibouti, Ekaterinburg, Gwadar, Hambantota, Karachi, Kolkata, Kuantan, Kyaukpyu, Maldives, Mandalay, Melaka, Minsk, Mumbai, Novosibirsk, Piraeus, Rayong, Sihanouk, Tashkent, Teheran, Valencia, Vientiane, Warsaw, Yangon) are produced. This data set serves as the research basis for all remote sensing data and provides baseline data for the project. This dataset can be updated in real time according to the official or government information of the node.
The dataset contains the phenological camera observation data of the Guazhou station in the midstream of Shulehe integrated observatory network from March 26 to October 31, 2019. The instrument was developed and data processed by Beijing Normal University. The phenomenon camera integrates data acquisition and data transmission functions. The camera captures data by look-downward with a resolution of 2592×1944. For the calculation of the greenness index and phenology, the relative greenness index (GCC, Green Chromatic Coordinate, calculated by GCC=G/(R+G+B)) needs to be calculated according to the region of interest, then the invalid value filling and filtering smoothing are performed, and finally the key phenological parameters are determined according to the growth curve fitting, such as the growth season start date, Peak, growth season end, etc. For coverage, first, select images with less intense illumination, then divide the image into vegetation and soil, calculate the proportion of vegetation pixels in each image in the calculation area. After the time series data is extracted, the original coverage data is smoothed and filtered according to the time window specified by the user, and the filtered result is the final time series coverage. This data set includes relative greenness index (Gcc), phenological period and coverage (Fc).
ZHAO Changming ZHANG Renyi