The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD) is a high spatial-temporal resolution gridded near-surface meteorological dataset that was developed specifically for studies of land surface processes in China. The dataset was made through fusion of remote sensing products, reanalysis dataset and in-situ observation data at weather stations. Its record starts from January 1979 and keeps extending (currently up to December 2018) with a temporal resolution of three hours and a spatial resolution of 0.1°. Seven near-surface meteorological elements are provided in CMFD, including 2-meter air temperature, surface pressure, specific humidity, 10-meter wind speed, downward shortwave radiation, downward longwave radiation and precipitation rate.
YANG Kun HE Jie
This data set is an upgraded version of the “Long-term series of daily snow depth dataset in China". This dataset provides daily data of snow depth distribution in China from January 1, 1979, to December 31, 2019, with a spatial resolution of 0.25 degrees. The original data used to derive the snow depth dataset are the daily passive microwave brightness temperature data (EASE-Grid) from SMMR (1979-1987), SSM/I (1987-2007) and SSMI/S (2008-2019) which were archived in the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Because the brightness temperatures come from different sensors, there is a certain system inconsistency among them. Therefore, before the derivation of snow depth, the inter-sensor calibration were performed to improve the temporal consistency of the brightness temperature data. Based on the calibrated brightness temperatures, the modified Chang algorithm developed by Dr. Tao Che, was used to retrieve daily snow depth. The algorithm details were introduced in the data specification document- “Long-term Sequence Data Set of China Snow Depth (1979-2019) Introduction. doc". The projection of the data set is latitude and longitude. The data of each day was stored in a file, and the naming convention of which is year + day; for example, 1990001 represents the first day of 1990, and 1990207 represents the 207th day of 1990. For a detailed data description, please refer to the data specification document.
CHE Tao DAI Liyun
This dataset includes the monthly precipitation data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 mm. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
The dataset is a 34-year (1983.7-2017.6) high-resolution (3 h, 10 km) global SSR (surface solar radiation) dataset, which can be used for hydrological modeling, land surface modeling and engineering application. The dataset was produced based on ISCCP-HXG cloud products, ERA5 reanalysis data, and MODIS aerosol and albedo products with an improved physical parameterization scheme. Validation and comparisons with other global satellite radiation products indicate that our SSR estimates were generally better than those of the ISCCP flux dataset (ISCCP-FD), the global energy and water cycle experiment surface radiation budget (GEWEX-SRB), and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES). This SSR dataset will contribute to the land-surface process simulations and the photovoltaic applications in the future. The unit is W/㎡, instantaneous value.
China's second glacier inventory uses the high-resolution Landsat TM/ETM+ remote sensing satellite data as the main glacier boundary data source and extracts the data source with the latest global digital elevation model, SRTM V4, as the glacier attribute, using the current international ratio threshold segmentation method to extract the glacier boundary in bare ice areas. The ice ridge extraction algorithm is developed to extract the glacier ice ridge, and it is used for the segmentation of a single glacier. At the same time, the international general algorithm is used to calculate the glacier attributes, so that the vector data and attribute data that contain the glacier information of the main glacier regions in west China are obtained. Compared with some field GPS field measurement data and higher resolution remote sensing images (such as from QuickBird and WorldView), the glacial vector data in the second glacier inventory data set of China have higher positioning accuracy and can meet the requirements for glacial data in national land, water conservancy, transportation, environment and other fields. Glacier inventory attributes: Glc_Name, Drng_Code, FCGI_ID, GLIMS_ID, Mtn_Name, Pref_Name, Glc_Long, Glc_Lati, Glc_Area, Abs_Accu, Rel_Accu, Deb_Area, Deb_A_Accu, Deb_R_Accu, Glc_Vol_A, Glc_Vol_B, Max_Elev, Min_Elev, Mean_Elev, MA_Elev, Mean_Slp, Mean_Asp, Prm_Image, Aux_Image, Rep_Date, Elev_Src, Elev_Date, Compiler, Verifier. For a detailed data description, please refer to the second glacier inventory data description.
LIU Shiyin GUO Wanqin XU Junli
The dataset includes soil physical and chemical attributes: pH value, organic matter fraction, cation exchange capacity, root abundance, total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P), total potassium (K), alkali-hydrolysable N, available P, available K, exchangeable H+, Al3+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ , Na+, horizon thickness, soil profile depth, sand, silt and clay fractions, rock fragment, bulk density, porosity, structure, consistency and soil color. Quality control information (QC) was provided. The resolution is 30 arc-seconds (about 1 km at the equator). The vertical variation of soil property was captured by eight layers to the depth of 2.3 m (i.e. 0- 0.045, 0.045- 0.091, 0.091- 0.166, 0.166- 0.289, 0.289- 0.493, 0.493- 0.829, 0.829- 1.383 and 1.383- 2.296 m) for convenience of use in the Common Land Model and the Community Land Model (CLM). 1.THSCH.nc: Saturated water content of FCH 2.PSI_S.nc: Saturated capillary potential of FCH 3.LAMBDA.nc: Pore size distribution index of FCH 4.K_SCH.nc: Saturate hydraulic conductivity of FCH 5.THR.nc: Residual moisture content of FGM 6.THSGM.nc: Saturated water content of FGM 7.ALPHA.nc: The inverse of the air-entry value of FGM 8.N.nc: The shape parameter of FGM 9.L.nc: The pore-connectivity parameter of FGM 10.K_SVG.nc: Saturated hydraulic conductivity of FGM 11.TH33.nc: Water content at -33 kPa of suction pressure, or field capacity 12.TH1500.nc: Water content at -1500 kPa of suction pressure, or permanent wilting point
DAI Yongjiu SHANGGUAN Wei
Gridded climatic datasets with fine spatial resolution can potentially be used to depict the climatic characteristics across the complex topography of China. In this study we collected records of monthly temperature at 1153 stations and precipitation at 1202 stations in China and neighboring countries to construct a monthly climate dataset in China with a 0.025° resolution (~2.5 km). The dataset, named LZU0025, was designed by Lanzhou University and used a partial thin plate smoothing method embedded in the ANUSPLIN software. The accuracy of LZU0025 was evaluated based on three aspects: (1) Diagnostic statistics from the surface fitting model during 1951–2011. The results indicate a low mean square root of generalized cross validation (RTGCV) for the monthly air temperature surface (1.06 °C) and monthly precipitation surface (1.97 mm1/2). (2) Error statistics of comparisons between interpolated monthly LZU0025 with the withholding of climatic data from 265 stations during 1951–2011. The results show that the predicted values closely tracked the real true values with values of mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.59 °C and 70.5 mm, and standard deviation of the mean error (STD) of 1.27 °C and 122.6 mm. In addition, the monthly STDs exhibited a consistent pattern of variation with RTGCV. (3) Comparison with other datasets. This was done in two ways. The first was via comparison of standard deviation, mean and time trend derived from all datasets to a reference dataset released by the China Meteorological Administration (CMA), using Taylor diagrams. The second was to compare LZU0025 with the station dataset in the Tibetan Plateau. Taylor diagrams show that the standard deviation, mean and time trend derived from LZU had a higher correlation with that produced by the CMA, and the centered normalized root-mean-square difference for this index derived from LZU and CMA was lower. LZU0025 had high correlation with the Coordinated Energy and Water Cycle Observation Project (CEOP) - Asian Monsoon Project, (CAMP) Tibet surface meteorology station dataset for air temperature, despite a non-significant correlation for precipitation at a few stations. Based on this comprehensive analysis, we conclude that LZU0025 is a reliable dataset. LZU0025, which has a fine resolution, can be used to identify a greater number of climate types, such as tundra and subpolar continental, along the Himalayan Mountain. We anticipate that LZU0025 can be used for the monitoring of regional climate change and precision agriculture modulation under global climate change.
HUANG Wei ZHAO Hong
This dataset includes the monthly minimum temperature data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 ℃. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
The data set was produced based on the SRTM DEM data collected by Space Shuttle Radar terrain mission in 2016, the reference data such as river, lake and other water system auxiliary data , using the arcgis hydrological model to analyze and extract the river network. There are 12 sub-basins over the Tibet Plateau, including AmuDayra、Brahmaputra、Ganges、Hexi、Indus、Inner、Mekong、Qaidam、Salween、Tarim、Yangtze、Yellow. The outer boundary is based on the 2500-metre contour line and national boundaries.
This dataset includes the monthly maximum temperature data with 0.0083333 arc degree (~1km) for China from Jan 1901 to Dec 2017. The data form belongs to NETCDF, namely .nc file. The unit of the data is 0.1 ℃. The dataset was spatially downscaled from CRU TS v4.02 with WorldClim datasets based on Delta downscaling method. The dataset was evaluated by 496 national weather stations across China, and the evaluation indicated that the downscaled dataset is reliable for the investigations related to climate change across China. The dataset covers the main land area of China, including Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan regions, and excluding islands and reefs in South China Sea.
The integration dataset of Tibetan Plateau boundary includes: TPBoundary_2500m：Based on ETOPO5 Global Surface Relief, ENVI+IDL is used to extract the longitude of the Tibetan Plateau (65~105) and the altitude of 2500 meters above the latitude (20~45); TPBoundary_3000m：Based on ETOPO5 Global Surface Relief, ENVI+IDL is used to extract the longitude of the Tibetan Plateau (65~105) and the altitude of 3000 meters above the latitude (20~45); TPBoundary_HF (High Frequency):Li Bingyuan (1987) has conducted a systematic discussion on the principle and specific boundary of determining the scope of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. From the perspective of the formation and basic characteristics of plateau geomorphology, Based on the geomorphological features, the plateau surface and its altitude, and considering the integrity of the mountain as the basic principle for determining the plateau range.Zhang Yili (2002) according to the results of new research in related fields and years of field practice, demonstration principles to determine the scope and boundaries of the Tibetan Plateau, Based on the information technology method, the location and boundary position of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are accurately located and quantitatively analyzed. It is concluded that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is partly in the Pamir Plateau in the west, the Hengduan Mountains in the east, the southern margin of the Himalayas in the south, and the Kunlun Mountains in the north. Mountain - north side of Qilian Mountain. On April 14, 2017, the Ministry of Civil Affairs of the People's Republic of China issued the "Announcement on Supplementing the Public Use of Place Names in the Southern Region of Tibet (First Batch)", adding Wujianling, Mirage, Qu Dengbu, and Mechuca 6 places in southern Tibet such as Baimingla Mountain Pass and Namkam;. TPBoundary_rectangle：According to the range Lon (63~105E) & Lat (20~45N), The data is projected using latitude and longitude WGS84.. Project source: national natural science foundation of China (41571068,41301063) Spatial range and projection mode of data: elevation greater than 2500m, WGS84 projection As the basic data, the boundary of qinghai-tibet plateau can be used as a reference for all kinds of geoscientific research on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
ZHANG Yili REN Huixia PAN Xiaoduo
This data is originated from the 1:100,000 national basic geographic database, which was open freely for public by the National Basic Geographic Information Center in November 2017. The boundary of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was spliced and clipped as a whole, so as to facilitate the study on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. This data set is the 1:100,000 administrative boundaries of the qinghai-tibet plateau, including National_Tibet_line、 Province_Tibet、City_Tibet、County_Tibet_poly and County_Tibet_line. Administrative boundary layer (County_Tibet_poly) property name and definition: Item Properties Describe Example PAC Administrative division code 513230 NAME The name of the County line name Administrative boundary layer (BOUL) attribute name and definition: Item Properties Describe Example GB classification code 630200 Administrative boundary layer (County_Tibet_line) attribute item meaning: Item Properties Describe Example GB 630200 Provincial boundary GB 640200 Prefectural, municipal and state administrative boundaries GB 650201 county administrative boundaries (determined)
National Basic Geographic Information Center
A multi-layer soil particle-size distribution dataset (sand, silt and clay content), based on USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) standard for regional land and climate modelling in China. was developed The 1:1,000,000 scale soil map of China and 8595 soil profiles from the Second National Soil Survey served as the starting point for this work. We reclassified the inconsistent soil profiles into the proper soil type of the map as much as possible because the soil classification names of the map units and profiles were not quite the same. The sand, silt and clay maps were derived using the polygon linkage method, which linked soil profiles and map polygons considering the distance between them, the sample sizes of the profiles, and soil classification information. For comparison, a soil type linkage was also generated by linking the map units and soil profiles with the same soil type. The quality of the derived soil fractions was reliable. Overall, the map polygon linkage offered better results than the soil type linkage or the Harmonized World Soil Database. The dataset, with a 1-km resolution, can be applied to land and climate modelling at a regional scale. Data characteristics： projection：projection Coverage: China Resolution: 0.00833 (about 1 km) Data format: FLT, TIFF Value range: 0%-100% Document describing： Floating point raster files include: Sand1. FLT, clay1. FLT -- surface (0-30cm) sand, clay content. Sand2. FLT, clay2. FLT -- content of sand and clay in the bottom layer (30-100cm). PSD. HDR -- header file: Ncols - the number of columns Nrows- rows Xllcorner - latitude in the lower left corner Yllcorner - longitude of the lower left corner Cellsize - cellsize NODATA_value - a null value byteorder - LSBFIRST, Least Significant Bit First TIFF raster files include: Sand1. Tif, clay1. Tif - surface (0-30cm) sand, clay content. Sand2. Tif, clay2. Tif - bottom layer (30-100cm) sand, clay content.
SHANGGUAN Wei DAI Yongjiu
This data set comprises the plateau soil moisture and soil temperature observational data based on the Tibetan Plateau, and it is used to quantify the uncertainty of model products of coarse-resolution satellites, soil moisture and soil temperature. The observation data of soil temperature and moisture on the Tibetan Plateau (Tibet-Obs) are from in situ reference networks at four regional scales, which are the Nagqu network of cold and semiarid climate, the Maqu network of cold and humid climate, and the Ali network of cold and arid climate，and Pali network. These networks provided representative coverage of different climates and surface hydrometeorological conditions on the Tibetan Plateau. - Temporal resolution: 1hour - Spatial resolution: point measurement - Measurement accuracy: soil moisture, 0.00001; soil temperature, 0.1 °C; data set size: soil moisture and temperature measurements at nominal depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 - Unit: soil moisture, cm ^ 3 cm ^ -3; soil temperature, °C
Bob Su YANG Kun
DEM is the English abbreviation of Digital Elevation Model, which is the important original data of watershed topography and feature recognition.DEM is based on the principle that the watershed is divided into cells of m rows and n columns, the average elevation of each quadrilateral is calculated, and then the elevation is stored in a two-dimensional matrix.Since DEM data can reflect local topographic features with a certain resolution, a large amount of surface morphology information can be extracted through DEM, which includes slope, slope direction and relationship between cells of watershed grid cells, etc..At the same time, the surface flow path, river network and watershed boundary can be determined according to certain algorithm.Therefore, to extract watershed features from DEM, a good watershed structure pattern is the premise and key of the design algorithm. Elevation data map 1km data formed according to 1:250,000 contour lines and elevation points in China, including DEM, hillshade, Slope and Aspect maps. Data set projection: Two projection methods: Equal Area projection Albers Conical Equal Area (105, 25, 47) Geodetic coordinates WGS84 coordinate system
Qinghai Tibet Plateau is the largest permafrost area in the world. At present, some permafrost distribution maps have been compiled. However, due to the limited data sources, unclear standards, insufficient verification and lack of high-quality spatial data sets, there is great uncertainty in drawing Permafrost Distribution Maps on TP. Based on the improved medium resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) surface temperature (LSTS) model of 1 km clear sky mod11a2 (Terra MODIS) and myd11a2 (Aqua MODIS) product (reprocessing version 5) in 2003-2012, the data set simulates the distribution of permafrost and generates the permafrost map of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The map was verified by field observation, soil moisture content and bulk density. Permafrost attributes mainly include: seasonally frozen ground, permafrost and unfrozen ground. The data set provides more detailed data of Permafrost Distribution and basic data for the study of permafrost in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
Vegetation functional type (PFT) is a combination of large plant species according to the ecosystem function and resource utilization mode of plant species. Each planting functional type shares similar plant attributes, which simplifies the diversity of plant species into the diversity of plant function and structure.The concept of vegetation-functional has been advocated by ecologists especially ecosystem modelers.The basic assumption is that globally important ecosystem dynamics can be expressed and simulated through limited vegetative functional types.At present, vegetation-functional model has been widely used in biogeographic model, biogeochemical model, land surface process model and global dynamic vegetation model. For example, the land surface process model of the national center for atmospheric research (NCAR) in the United States has changed the original land cover information into the applied vegetation-functional map (Bonan et al., 2002).Functional vegetation has been used in the dynamic global vegetation model (DGVM) to predict the changes of ecosystem structure and function under the global change scenario. 1. Functional classification system of vegetation 1 Needleleaf evergreen tree, temperate 2 Needleleaf evergreen tree, boreal 3 Needleleaf deciduous tree 4 Broadleaf evergreen tree, tropical 5 Broadleaf evergreen tree, temperate 6 Broadleaf deciduous tree, tropical 7 Broadleaf deciduous tree, temperate 8 Broadleaf deciduous tree, boreal 9 Broadleaf evergreen shrub, temperate 10 Broadleaf deciduous shrub, temperate 11 Broadleaf deciduous shrub, boreal 12 C3 grass, arctic 13 C3 grass 14 C4 grass 15 Crop 16 Permanent wetlands 17 Urban and built-up lands 18 Snow and ice 19 Barren or sparsely vegetated lands 20 Bodies of water 2. Drawing method China's 1km vegetation function map is based on the climate rules of land cover and vegetation function conversion proposed by Bonan et al. (Bonan et al., 2002).Ran et al., 2012).MICLCover land cover map is a blend of 1:100000 data of land use in China in 2000, the Chinese atlas (1:10 00000) the type of vegetation, China 1:100000 glacier map, China 1:10 00000 marshes and MODIS land cover 2001 products (MOD12Q1) released the latest land cover data, using IGBP land cover classification system.The evaluation shows that it may be the most accurate land cover map on the scale of 1km in China.Climate data is China's atmospheric driven data with spatial resolution of 0.1 and temporal resolution of 3 hours from 1981 to 2008 developed by he jie et al. (2010).The data incorporates Princeton land-surface model driven data (Sheffield et al., 2006), gewex-srb radiation data (Pinker et al., 2003), TRMM 3B42 and APHRODITE precipitation data, and observations from 740 meteorological stations and stations under the China meteorological administration.According to the evaluation results of RanYouhua et al. (2010), GLC2000 has a relatively high accuracy in the current global land cover data set, and there is no mixed forest in its classification system. Therefore, the mixed forest in the MICLCover land cover diagram USES GLC2000 (Bartholome and Belward, 2005).The information in xu wenting et al., 2005) was replaced.The data can be used in land surface process model and other related researches.
RAN Youhua LI Xin
The remote sensing monitoring database of land use status in China is a multi-temporal land use status database covering the land area of China, which has been established after many years of accumulation under the support of the National Science and Technology Support Plan and the Key Direction Project of the Knowledge Innovation Project of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is the most accurate remote sensing monitoring data product of land use in China at present, which has played an important role in the national land resources survey, hydrology and ecological research. This data set covers the six western provinces in China: Xinjiang, Tibet, Qinghai, Yunnan, Sichuan and Gansu. Based on Landsat TM/ETM remote sensing images in the late 1970s、1980s、1995、2000、2005、2010、2015， 1KM raster data are generated by using the professional software and manual visual interpretation on the basis of vector data. The land use types include six primary land types which are cultivated land, forest land, grassland, water area, residential land and unused land, and 25 secondary types.
The long-term sequence data set of lake areas on the Tibetan Plateau contains area data of 364 lakes with areas greater than 10 square kilometers from 1970s to 2013. Based on Landsat images, Landsat data in October are mainly used, and one data is taken every three years to reduce seasonal variation and make the available data reach the maximum. The data set is extracted by the NDWI Water Index, and each lake undergoes manual visual inspection and edition. The data set can be used to study lake change, lake water balance and climate change on the Tibetan Plateau. Data type: Vector data. Projection: WGS84.
The field observation platform of the Tibetan Plateau is the forefront of scientific observation and research on the Tibetan Plateau. The land surface processes and environmental changes based comprehensive observation of the land-boundary layer in the Tibetan Plateau provides valuable data for the study of the mechanism of the land-atmosphere interaction on the Tibetan Plateau and its effects. This dataset integrates the 2005-2016 hourly atmospheric, soil hydrothermal and turbulent fluxes observations of Qomolangma Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS/CAS), Southeast Tibet Observation and Research Station for the Alpine Environment, CAS (SETORS), the BJ site of Nagqu Station of Plateau Climate and Environment, CAS (NPCE-BJ), Nam Co Monitoring and Research Station for Multisphere Interactions, CAS (NAMORS), Ngari Desert Observation and Research Station, CAS (NADORS), Muztagh Ata Westerly Observation and Research Station, CAS (MAWORS). It contains gradient observation data composed of multi-layer wind speed and direction, temperature, humidity, air pressure and precipitation data, four-component radiation data, multi-layer soil temperature and humidity and soil heat flux data, and turbulence data composed of sensible heat flux, latent heat flux and carbon dioxide flux. These data can be widely used in the analysis of the characteristics of meteorological elements on the Tibetan Plaetau, the evaluation of remote sensing products and development of the remote sensing retrieval algorithms, and the evaluation and development of numerical models.