The marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments from the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the three well exposed outcrop profiles from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on rock magnetism. All the samples for the Palpa section with depth of 120 m had been performed on mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Meanwhile, the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and the hysteresis loops was acquired from the fine sediments, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs).
This data set is the hydrogen isotope data of leaf wax from 10 m core of Qinghai Lake in Tengchong, Southeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Tengchong Qinghai Lake is a small crater lake in Gaoligong Mountain, Southwest China. Core samples were collected at about 4m in the center of the lake in 2017. Ams-14c dating was used to establish the age series. The n-alkane leaf wax hydrogen isotope was determined and analyzed by Agilent 6890 GC gas chromatograph and Deltaplus XL type chromatography isotope mass spectrometry. The data reflect the information of atmospheric precipitation isotope in this area, and play an important role in the study of monsoon precipitation changes in southwest monsoon region in the past 40000 years. Data acquisition, pre-processing extraction and instrument testing were completed in strict accordance with the relevant operating procedures.
Lake sediment is important archive for reconstructing the past climate change, in which the chronological framework of sediments is the basis. Varve is a kind of sedimentary lamina formed in pairs in lake sediments, usually with one year as a cycle. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, the authors obtained a 1-meter long sediment gravity core from Jiangco in the central Tibet Plateau, and found well preserved varves. Subsequently, core thin sections were made, and the varve and its thickness were counted and measured to obtain the chronological sequence from 81 A.D. to 2015. The precipitation in this area in the past 2000 years has been reconstructed by using the percentage of coarse-grained layer thickness in the total varve thickness, which represents the precipitation. High resolution and high-precision chronology and precipitation records can provide reliable background of climate and environmental change, and provide reference for paleoclimate simulation and the rise and fall of ancient civilization.
Pollen and spores extracted from sediment are considered as the important proxy in reconstructing past vegetation and climate, and which plays essential role in investigating environmental evolution during the Quaternary. Accurate identification of pollen and spore is the base for palynological research, which determines it is quite necessary to establish modern atlas for pollen and spore. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, authors completed the vegetation and soil surveys in 2018 for the alpine meadow in the east Tibetan Plateau (including Yushu Prefecture, Changdu City, Ganzi prefecture, Naqu City) and alpine forest in the southeast Tibetan Plateau (Linzhi City) , and collected 401 specimens for anther of flowering plants and sporangium of ferns. Pollen and spores were extracted and from these specimens using the standard acid-alkali approach and acetolysis (9:1 mixture of acetic anhydride and sulphuric acid) treatment, and further were refrigerated in glycerin. More than two photographs were took for each pollen and spore type, using the LEICA-dm-2500 optical microscope and its imaging system with scale. The atlas of pollen and spore morphology will be a valuable reference for palynology research and teaching.
CAO Xianyong TIAN Fang LI Kai NI Jian
Data set contains tree age of trees growing at different glacier moraines in the central Himalayas. The data were obtained using tree ring samples. Cores samples were collected (almost near to the ground level to estimate the minimum age of the related moraine) using an increment borer. Samples were processed by using standard dendrochronological techniques.
SIGDEL Shalik Ram ZHNAG Hui ZHU Haifeng MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher MUHAMMAD Sher LIANG Eryuan*
Guided by the theories of plate tectonics, paleogeography, petroliferous basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics, we have collected a large number of data and achievements of geological research and oil-gas geological research in Pan third pole in recent years, including basic materials such as stratum, sedimentation, paleontology, paleogeography, paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, structure, oil-gas (potash) geology, especially paleomagnetism and paleogenesis On the basis of zircon and geochemical data, combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic sections, the lithofacies and climate palaeogeographic pattern of Jurassic period are restored and reconstructed, and the paleogeographic map of lithofacies and climate of Pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) and pan third extremely early, middle and late Jurassic (3 sheets) are obtained, aiming to discuss paleogeography and paleostructure The control and influence of paleoclimate on oil and gas (including potash) resources, in order to reveal the geological conditions and resource distribution rules of oil and gas formation, and provide scientific basis and technical support for overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration and deployment in China.
Cenozoic sedimentary strata, which have been extensively developed in the low Himalaya region of western Nepal, provide an opportunity to study the dynamics of plateau uplift and the effects of climate and environment. According to a detailed field explored in the region nearly 10 sections, we found that a typical Cenozoic strata in the area is mainly composed of passive continental margin sedimentary of India's Tansen group and the Himalayas of foreland basin of Siwalik group, thickness of the Tansen group of 2000-3000 m, bottom-up Cenozoic strata, including the Amile group (Amile), and Bhainskati group (Bhainskati), Dumri group (Dumri); The Siwalik group, up to 4000m-6000m, is mainly composed of the lower, middle and upper west Siwalik. Cenozoic strata in Butwal section (309 m, including Amile and upper Bhainskati formation), Tulsipur section (357 m, including the top of Amile group and Bhainskati group formation) and Kalyan section (1161 m, including upper Bhainskati group formation and Dumri formation) are well exposed. High precise (with 1 m spacing) paleomagnetic chronology and environmental proxies samples collected in those three sections. By giving the precise stratigraphic age and paleoenvironmental data, it is of great significance to explore whether the north-south monsoon and drought events on the plateau are coupled and synchronized, and to reveal their relationship with the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global change.
1) Data content: this data is the DNA data of the paleoenvironmental sediments generated from the study of four archaeological sites in the downstream of Yarlung Zangbo River in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, including Changguogou, Liding, Liena and, Qugong. It includes the sequence of Hiseqx metagenomic data of 10 samples of the paleoenvironmental sediments in four archaeological sites. It can be used to study the research methods and feasibility of the ancient environment DNA in the archaeological sites of the Tibet Plateau and its possible important role in the research of the ancient agricultural development processes. 2) Data source and processing method: it is the own data of our research group, and the data is detected by using the pair-end library building method and Illumina Hiseqx sequencing method. 3) Data quality: 279M data volume, Q30 > 85%. 4) Achievements and prospects of data application: data are used to reveal the ancient agriculture in the Tibet Plateau at the level of ancient environmental DNA.
This magnetic susceptibility data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the eastern Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the magnetic susceptibility of the top part of the loess sequence at 5cm intervals, and obtained 200 sets of magnetic susceptibility data. The experimental analysis was completed in the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Air-dried and grind the samples were put it into a non-magnetic cubic box, and measured by the British Bartington MS2. The result indicates the varations of the low frequency magnetic susceptibility of the Loess sequence since the Last Interglacial at Ganzi area, which is of great importance for understanding past environment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
This data is the grain size data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the east of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The whole section is 10 meters thick, and the grain size analysis is carried out according to the interval of 2.5cm. A total of 398 groups of grain size data are obtained. The grain size analysis was carried out at the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Before the measurement, the organic matter and carbonate in the sample were removed by H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, then adding the sodium hexago-hydrophosphate and vibrating for about 10 min to disperse samples by using ultrasonic apparatus. All measurements are conducted by using the Mastersizer 2000. This data reflects variations of the loess grain size since the last interglacial, which is of great importance for understanding past evionroment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
The climate model used is a fast air sea coupled model (famous) developed jointly by the British meteorological agency and the University of England. In the famous model, the horizontal resolution of the atmospheric model is 5 °× 7.5 ° and there are 11 layers in the vertical direction; the horizontal resolution of the ocean model is 2.5 °× 3.75 ° and there are 20 layers in the vertical direction. The atmosphere and the ocean are coupled once a day without flux adjustment
The data set integrated glacier inventory data and 426 Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images, and adopted manual visual interpretation to extract glacial lake boundaries within a 10-km buffer from glacier terminals using ArcGIS and ENVI software, normalized difference water index maps, and Google Earth images. It was established that 26,089 and 28,953 glacial lakes in HMA, with sizes of 0.0054–5.83 km2, covered a combined area of 1692.74 ± 231.44 and 1955.94 ± 259.68 km2 in 1990 and 2018, respectively.The current glacial lake inventory provided fundamental data for water resource evaluation, assessment of glacial lake outburst floods, and glacier hydrology research in the mountain cryosphere region
This dataset includes few pollen data and high-resolution microcharcoal dataset in a ~4000 m-thick sedimentary outcrops retrieved from the Huatutou, Qaidam Basin. Pollen data from the sediment are rare, only 15 samples got enough pollen grains for pollen assemblages division and analysis, the results indicates that during the early period, the vegetation are favor a relatively warm and wet climate correlated with the global warming stages (only ice-sheet accumulated in the Antarctic), then along with the global cooling, the xerophytic taxa increased and the vegetation types became similar than before. Sedimentary microcharcoals from fine grains (e.g., mudstone, siltstone and sandstone) are one of the typical wildfire proxies commonly used in paleoclimatic studies, as they have the potential to record past variations in wildfire history related with the vegetation and precipitation. The sediment samples were grounded and treated with 10% HCl and 40% HF to remove carbonates and silica. Separation of the microcharcoals from the residue was accomplished using a 10-lm nylon sieve. Finally, they were mounted in glycerin jelly. Based on the data of outcrops in the Qaidam Basin, the evolution history of wildfire and arid environment together vegetation in the west Qaidam Basin since the early Oligocene can be reconstructed, allowing further exploring of trends, variability and mechanisms of vegetation and wildfire history.
Luanhaizi Borehole (LHZ18) was acquired by Huang Xiaozhong Research Group of Lanzhou University in August 2018. This data is 0-859 cm grain size data of the core of Luanhaizi Lake in Qilian Mountains. Grain size analysis was carried out at 0-4 m according to one sample, and grain size analysis was carried out at on ssample interval at the depth of 4-8.6 m, totaling 390 data were obtained. The experiment was completed in the Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Environmental Education of Lanzhou University, and grain size analysis was carried out with Mastersizer 2000 instrument. The data reflected the grain size change of the lake sediment, which is very important for the study of long-time series eolian activities in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
HUANG Xiaozhong ZHANG Jun WANG Jiale REN Xiuxiu SUN Mingjie XIANG Lixiong
This dataset is provided by the author of the paper: Huang, R., Zhu, H.F., Liang, E.Y., Liu, B., Shi, J.F., Zhang, R.B., Yuan, Y.J., & Grießinger, J. (2019). A tree ring-based winter temperature reconstruction for the southeastern Tibetan Plateau since 1340 CE. Climate Dynamics, 53(5-6), 3221-3233. In this paper, in order to understand the past few hundred years of winter temperature change history and its driving factors, the researcher of Key Laboratory of Alpine Ecology, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences and CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences. Prof. Eryuan Liang and his research team, reconstructed the minimum winter (November – February) temperature since 1340 A.D. on southeastern Tibetan Plateau based on the tree-ring samples taken from 2007-2016. The dataset contains minimum winter temperature reconstruction data of Changdu on the southeastern TP during 1340-2007. The data contains fileds as follows: year Tmin.recon (℃) See attachments for data details: A tree ring-based winter temperature reconstruction for the southeasternTibetan Plateau since 1340 CE.pdf
HUANG Ru ZHU Haifeng LIANG Eryuan
Guided by plate tectonics, palaeogeography, petroleum basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics , a large number of data and achievements in recent years of geological and petroleum geology research in Pan-Third Pole have been collected, including basic materials such as strata, sediments, palaeontology, palaeogeography, palaeoenvironments, palaeoclimate, structure, petroleum (sylvine) geology, especially Palaeomagnetism and palaeozoic. On the basis of material, detrital zircon and geochemical data, and combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic profiles, the lithofacies and climatic palaeogeographic pattern of the Triassic period were restored and reconstructed, and the Palaeogeographic distribution of Early, Middle and Late Triassic lithofacies in Pan-Third Pole area as well as the paleoclimatic distribution maps were obtained, aiming at discussing the control and influence of palaeogeography, palaeostructure and Palaeoclimate on hydrocarbon (potassium-bearing) resources In order to reveal the geological conditions of oil and gas formation and the law of resource distribution, and provide scientific basis and technical support for overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration and deployment in China. The boundary line between different lithofacies and climate is clear, which better reveals the paleogeographic pattern of lithofacies and climate in the Triassic period, which is of certain indicative significance for the study of the control and influence of paleogeography, paleostructure and paleoclimate on oil and gas (including potash) resources, as well as the geological conditions for the formation of oil and gas and the distribution of resources.
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau, we discovered 14 historic period sites, including Meinuo, Sariguo, Rongwaguo, Kaze, Jiha, Yarigei, Bami, Barongbadang, Qingtu, Labu ,Maisong Petroglyph, Gala, Yezere 1 and Yezere 4 . In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant macrofossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the historic period.
DONG Guanghui HOU Guangliang
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau, we discovered 8 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, including Gaomuxudi, Duojialiang, Shuikou, Qipanshan, Xinzhai, Canxionggasu, Niaodao, Bangga, Baiyangcun and so on. In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant macrofossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
DONG Guanghui YANG Xiaoyan Lü Hongliang
The Southern Tibet Rift System (STRS) is one of the most prominent tectonic and geomorphological features in the southern Tibetan Plateau. The Jilong-Oma and Dati basins are located in the northern Himalaya Mountains. The late Cenozoic sedimentary sequences deposited in these two rift basins have archived abundant information about formation and evolution of the STRS and the uplift process of the Tibetan Plateau. The detailed stratigraphic and sedimentologic investigations were conducted on the late Cenozoic sediments in the Jilong-Oma basins. The late Cenozoic sediments in the Jilong-Oma Basin is over 610 m in thickness, including the lower conglomerate member of the fan delta facies (Danzengzhukang Fm., 400-600 m), the middle mudstone interbedded with sandstone member of fluvio-lacustrine facies (Oma Fm., 200-400 m) and the upper conglomerate intercalated with mudstone member of alluvial fan facies (Gongba Fm., 200-0 m). The Hipparion fossils were previously found at the bottom of the Oma Fm. The late Cenozoic sediments in the Dati Basin have a thickness of ~300 m, iucluding the lower mudstone, sandstone and sandy conglomerate member of fluvio-lacustrine faceis (Dati Fm., 80-305 m), and the upper conglomerate member of alluvial fan facies (Gongba Fm., 80-0 m). The Hipparion fossils were previously found at the upper part of the Dati Fm. By comparing with the Zhada Basin in the west part of the Himalaya orogen, it shows that these rift basins experienced the similar sedimentary evolution history and have the comparable Hipparion fossils. Establishing the precise chronology of these sediments and carrying out comprehensive comparison analyses between the rift basins play important roles in understanding the formation and evolution of the STRS, the uplift and deformation processes of the southern Tibetan Plateau and the climate change in the surrounding areas.