The data set records one belt, one road, 65 countries, 1961-2009 years of agricultural machinery (tractor) quantity and other relevant data. Agricultural machinery refers to the number of wheeled and tracked tractors (excluding horticultural tractors) used in agriculture at the end of a specified calendar year or the first quarter of the following year. Data source: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site. Agricultural machinery reduces labor intensity, reduces hard labor, alleviates labor shortage, improves productivity and timeliness of agricultural activities, improves effective utilization of resources, increases market access, and helps reduce climate related hazards. In the future, agricultural machinery will play a greater role in ensuring the environmental sustainability of agriculture. The data set contains two data tables: Agricultural Machinery (tractors per 100 square kilometers of arable land), agricultural machinery (number of tractors).
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau and Hexi corridor, we discovered more than 40 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, including Zongri, Sanjiaocheng, Huoshiliang, Ganggangwa, Yigediwonan, Shaguoliang, Guandi, Maolinshan, Dongjicuona, Nuomuhong, Qugong, Liding and so on. In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant fossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stable carbon, nitrogen isotopes, polle, fungal sporen and environmental proxies. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
DONG Guanghui YANG Xiaoyan Lü Hongliang LIU Xiangjun HOU Guangliang
The matching and zoning of water and land resources in Central Asian countries under the background of climate change can provide support for the development of water and land resources and agricultural production in Central Asian countries, and is of great significance to the social stability of the core region of the Silk Road Economic Belt. Based on the collected meteorological, water resources, land use and remote sensing data, the present situation of water and land resources development and utilization in Central Asia is analyzed. Based on the evaluating the characteristics and shortages of agricultural soil and water resources, using the DPSIR model and the theory of supply and demand, we constructed the index structure framework (SDCSL) of the study area, and the principal component analysis and cluster analysis are used to divide the regional of water and land resources utilization. Finally, we discussed the measures and ways to achieve the effective matching of agricultural water and land resources in different regions, so as to provide scientific reference and theoretical basis for the effective matching and sustainable development of regional agricultural water and land resources.
ZHOU Hongfei YAO Haijiao LI Li Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations（FAO）
In order to study the relationship between the spread of cyanine and human activities, we will resequence the cyanine varieties from the Qinghai Tibet Plateau and its surrounding areas, as well as Pakistan, India, Nepal, Germany, Japan and other places. At the same time, we will cluster the gene families, and make statistics of unique, shared genes and gene families. In addition, we will also carry out the analysis of gene family expansion and contraction, and system development Tree construction, genome-wide replication events and other analysis. The aim is to analyze the molecular basis of adaptation of traditional species of cyanine to the plateau under the dual pressures of human activities and regional climate. Therefore, this study is helpful to reveal the adaptive mechanism of cyanine to adapt to the plateau ecological environment and the influence of artificial domestication and human selection on its genetic differentiation in the process of evolution.
The data set of agricultural activity intensity of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau is based on the County-Level Agricultural statistical data, including the annual cultivated land area, agricultural, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery labor force, total power of agricultural machinery, rural power consumption, effective irrigation area, pesticide use, fertilizer use, total output of grain crops, and total output value of agricultural, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery. The agricultural input index and output index are taken as the first level indicators, and the unit cultivated land area is constructed The intensity index system of agricultural activity is composed of 10 indexes, such as total power of agricultural machinery, fertilizer application amount per unit cultivated area and labor productivity. Entropy method was used to determine the weight of each index, and the input-output index of county-level agriculture in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau was obtained by AHP. The basic data comes from the statistical data released by the National Bureau of statistics, and the original data has been approved and corrected, with high reliability. The input-output index, input-output index and input-output index of county level in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau from 1980s to 2015 included in the data set reflect the spatiotemporal variation characteristics of the intensity of agricultural production activities in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau to a certain extent, and provide data support and theoretical reference for the local agricultural development.
In this study, the cultivated land, forest land and grassland of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau in 2015 were taken as the evaluation objects to analyze the terrain, climate, soil and vegetation factors (terrain: altitude, slope; climate: sunshine hours, ≥ 0 ℃ accumulated temperature, annual average precipitation; soil: soil texture, soil erosion intensity, soil layer thickness; vegetation: vegetation type, NDVI) that have significant impact on land sensitivity and establish agriculture Land sensitivity evaluation index system. Using AHP method to determine the weight of evaluation factors, according to the ArcGIS Jerks classification method to get the sensitivity level of cultivated land, forest land and grassland, output 250m resolution of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau agricultural land sensitivity map, and verify the results.
Based on the calculated ecological environmental risk of agriculture and animal husbandry in 1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010 and 2015 on the Tibetan Plateau, the fuzzy weighted Markov chain model was used to predict the ecological environmental risk without the meteorological factors.The meteorological factors data extracted from future climate model (rcp4.5) was superimposed with ecological environmental risk of agriculture and animal husbandry without the meteorological factors. The resulting risk of agriculture and animal husbandry development in 2030, 2050 and 2070 can provide scientific basis for the future development planning of agricultural and animal husbandry on the Tibetan Plateau.
Based on the ecological environmental risk data of the development of agriculture and animal husbandry in 2030, 2050 and 2070 in the Qinghai Tibet Plateau, the risk values of agriculture and animal husbandry in the six typical years of 198519901995200002010 and 2015 are calculated, and the predicted value of ecological environmental risk in 203020502070 is calculated by using the fuzzy weighted Markov chain model. The grid map of meteorological factors extracted from ArcGIS and the future climate model (rcp4.5) was superimposed to obtain the data of agricultural and animal husbandry ecological environment risk in the Tibetan Plateau in 203020502070.
The content of this data set is the measurements of body weight and body size (body height, body length, chest circumference, tube circumference) of 11 representative yak populations in Qinghai pastoral area at 2018. All the metadata comes from the work of body weight monitoring of yaks in Qinghai pastoral area at 2018, by the Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Qinghai Academy of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences. The data set is named by “Monitoring Data Set of Body Weights of Traditional Grazing Yaks in Qinghai Pastoral Area (2018)”, consisting of 11 worksheets. The names and contents of worksheets are as follows: 1. Haiyan-Halejing (167 yaks in halejing Mongolian Town, Haiyan County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 2. Qilian-Mole (69 yaks in Mole Town, Qilian County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 3. Qilian-Yeniugou (42 yaks in Yeniugou Town, Qilian County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 4. Qilian-Yanglong (104 yaks in Yanglong Town, Qilian County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 5. Qilian-Ebao (28 yaks in Ebao Town, Qilian County, Haibei Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 6. Tianjun-Xinyuan (38 yaks in Xinyuan Town, Tianjun County, Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 7. Tianjun-Longmen (100 yaks in Longmen Town, Tianjun County, Haixi Mongolian and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 8. Gande-Ganlong (36 yaks in Ganglong Town, Gande County, Guoluo Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 9. Guinan-Taxiu (70 yaks in Taxiu Town, Guinan County, Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 10. Henan-Kesheng (73 yaks in Kesheng Town, Henan Mongolian Autonomous Country, Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture); 11. Ledu-Dala (50 yaks in Dala Town, Ledu District, Haidong City). This data set comprehensively evaluates the growth performance of yaks grazing in alpine meadow under the current ecological environment through the measurement of weight and body size data in the representative areas of Qinghai pastoral area. The data set can be compared with the growth characteristics of representative populations of Qinghai yaks measured in 1981 and 2008 recorded in 1983 and 2013, and the degradation index of growth performance of yaks grazing in Qinghai pastoral area can be obtained, which is helpful to assess the impact of ecological environment changes on the growth and production performance of grazing livestock.
JIA Gongxue YANG Qien Tianwei XU
The Tibetan Plateau in China covers six provinces including Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Yunnan, Gansu and Sichuan, including Tibet and Qinghai, as well as parts of Xinjiang, Yunnan, Gansu and Sichuan. The research on water and soil resources matching aims to reveal the equilibrium and abundance of water resources and land resources in a certain regional scale. The higher the level of consistency between regional water resources and the allocation of cultivated land resources, the higher the matching degree, and the superior the basic conditions of agricultural production. The general agricultural water resource measurement method based on the unit area of cultivated land is used to reflect the quantitative relationship between the water supply of agricultural production in the study area and the spatial suitability of cultivated land resources. The Excel file of the data set contains the generalized agricultural soil and water resource matching coefficient data of the Tibetan Plateau municipal administrative region in China from 2008 to 2015, the vector data is the boundary data of the Tibetan Plateau municipal administrative region in China in 2004, and the raster data pixel value is the generalized agricultural soil and water resource matching coefficient of the year in the region.
DONG Qianjin DONG Lingxiao
This study takes the land resources in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau as the evaluation object, and clarifies the current situation in the region suitable for agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry production and the quantity, quality and distribution of the reserve land resources. Through field investigations, collect relevant data from the study area, and combine relevant literature and expert experience to determine the evaluation factors (altitude, slope, annual precipitation, accumulated temperature, sunshine hours, soil effective depth, texture, erosion, vegetation type, NDVI). The grading and standardization are carried out, and the weights of each evaluation factor are determined by principal component analysis. The weighted index and model are used to determine the total score of the evaluation unit. Finally, the ArcGis natural discontinuity classification method is used to obtain the Qingshang Plateau. And the grades of farmland, forestry and grassland suitability drawings of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with a resolution of 90m were given. Finally, the results are verified and analyzed.
The data set contains agricultural economic data of all counties and regions in the Tibetan Plateau in 1980-2015, and covering the total number of households and total population in rural areas, agricultural population, rural labor force, cultivated land, paddy field area, the dry land area, power of agricultural machinery, agricultural vehicles, mechanical ploughing area, irrigation area, consumption of chemical fertilizers electricity use, gross output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, the output of cattle, pig, sheep, meat, poultry, and fish, the sown area of grain, the output of grain, cotton, oil and all kinds of crops, and characteristic agricultural products and livestock production and other relevant data.The data came from the statistical yearbook of the provinces included in the Tibetan Plateau.The data are of good quality and can be used to analyze the socio-economic and agricultural development of qinghai-tibet plateau.
The data of Land Resources Productivity for “B&R” includes: 1. Areas of cultivated land resources in regions and countries along the “B&R”; 2. Data on grain planting area and total grain output in regions and countries along the “B&R”; 3. Major crops (rice, wheat, corn) in regions and countries along the route Planting area and production data; 4. Areas of grassland resources in the region and along the country; 5. Number of livestock (bovine, sheep) in the region and along the country. Source: Cultivated land and population data from the World Bank database; food, crop, grassland, and livestock data are from FAO. Data application: According to the data provided, the basic characteristics analysis of land resources and the analysis of land resource output can be carried out in the Belt and Road region and the countries along the route, so that the land resource productivity evaluation analysis can be carried out.
The data set records the cereal yield of of 1961-2016 countries along 65 countries along the belt and road. Data sources: Food and Agriculture Organization, electronic files and web site.The data are collected by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations through annual questionnaires and are supplemented with information from official secondary data sources. The secondary sources cover official country data from websites of national ministries, national publications and related country data reported by various international organizations.Data on agricultural land in different climates may not be comparable. For example, permanent pastures are quite different in nature and intensity in African countries and dry Middle Eastern countries. The dataset contains 2 tables：Cereal production (metric tons),Cereal yield (kg per hectare).
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau, we discovered 14 historic period sites, including Meinuo, Sariguo, Rongwaguo, Kaze, Jiha, Yarigei, Bami, Barongbadang, Qingtu, Labu ,Maisong Petroglyph, Gala, Yezere 1 and Yezere 4 . In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant macrofossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating and stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the historic period.
DONG Guanghui HOU Guangliang
The data include the data of cattle stock at the end of the year of Tibetan Plateau . The spatial area is divided by counties on the Tibetan Plateau. The time resolution is 5 years, and the time coverage is 2000, 2005, 2010.This data is obtained through statistics and collection of relevant literature, historical database records and other materials, and other data are acquired through purchase.The data can be used to analyze the agricultural production and meat price changes of each county on the Tibetan Plateau. In addition, the development differences of each county on the Tibetan Plateau can also be analyzed by comparing the data of the counties.
The data on the consumption and trade of agricultural products for the period 1992-2016 in the five Central Asian countries are derived from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) food statistics database. The main elements include: crop types and yields, crop sown area, breed species and scale, animal product output, dietary structure, population, policy technology, total import and export amount and amount, etc. It can be used to support the development and utilization of agricultural water and soil resources in Central Asia, and the measurement and management of the "virtual water" and "virtual soil" resources contained in agricultural products. It provides the basic data support for the agricultural products trade complementation and agricultural cooperation decision making between China and the five Central Asian countries, and guarantees and promotes the construction of the Silk Road economic belt.
YANG Yonghui HE Li
In order to explore how and when turnip was successfully domesticated the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and what is the relationship between turnip domestication and early human settlement on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and human migration along the ancient Silk Road, the whole genome De Novo sequencing of a self-bred F1 variety on Qinghai-Xizang Plateau was conducted, with the assembled genome size of 409.69 Mb,Contig N50 was 1.21 Mb in June 2018 using Pacbio sequencing. Those data will provide a genetic basis for elucidating the relationship between plant disperse and human activities. As we know, traditional turnip landrace is influenced by human domestication and nature selection. Hopefully, the study will help to understand the impacts of human selection on turnip genetic differentiation, and the adaptation mechanism of turnip in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
The data set records the yield data of various crops in Tibet from 1951 to 2016. The data set contains 2 tables: Main crop yields (including 12 fields: year, total grain output, rice, wheat, winter wheat, hulless barley, beans, other, rapeseed, peanuts, vegetables, and green fodder); and The main crop yields of various counties over the years (including 6 fields: year, districts and counties, grain, cereal, beans, rapeseed). The data were derived from the Tibet Society and Economics Statistical Yearbook and the Tibet Statistical Yearbook.
National Bureau of Statistics
By applying Supply-demand Balance Analysis, the water resource supply and demand of the whole river basin and each county or district were calculated and used to evaluate the vulnerability of the water resources system of the basin. The IPAT equation was used to set a future water resource demand scenario to establish the scenario by setting variables such as future population growth rate, economic growth rate, and unit GDP water consumption. By taking 2005 as the base year and using assorted forecasting data of population size and economic scale, the future water demand scenarios of various counties and cities from 2010 to 2050 were predicted. By applying the basic structure of the HBV conceptual hydrological model of the Swedish Hydrometeorological Institute, a model of the variation tendency of the basin under climate change was designed. The glacial melting scenario was used as the model input to construct the runoff scenario under climate change. According to the national regulations of the water resources allocation of the basin, a water distribution plan was set up to calculate the water supply comprehensively. Considering of the supply and demand situation, the water resource system vulnerability was evaluated by the water shortage rate. By calculating the (grain production) land pressure index of the major counties and cities in the basin, the balance of supply and demand of land resources under the climate change, glacial melt and population growth scenarios was analyzed, and the vulnerability of the agricultural system was evaluated. The Miami formula and HANPP model were used to calculate the human appropriation of net primary biomass and primary biomass in the major counties and cities for the future, and the vulnerability of ecosystems from the perspective of supply and demand balance was assessed.
YANG Linsheng ZHONG Fanglei