The data set is the distribution of the average roughness in Central Asia including three temperate deserts, the Karakum, Kyzylkum and Muyunkun Deserts, and one of the world's largest arid zones. This is the MODIS-NDVI data set calculated by using the median particle diameter and the vegetation coverage. The space and time resolutions are 500 m and 16 days, respectively. The time is from 01, January, 2017 to 18, December, 2017. The data set uses the the Geodetic coordinate system. It can be used for the investigation of the Desert oil and gas field, and oasis cities.