Relationship between modern pollen and climate, and its representative to vegetation are the important references in explaining and reconstructing past climate and vegetation qualitatively or quantitatively. To extrct past climate and vegetation signals from fossil pollen spectrum of a lacustrine sediment, a corresponding modern pollen dataset collected from lake-sediment surface is necessary. At present, there are a few modern pollen datasets extracted from lake sediment-surface established on the Tibetan Plateau, however, the geographic gaps (e.g. the central and east Tibetan Plateau) of available sampled lakes influence the correct understanding. To ensure the even distribution of the representative lakes, we collected lake sediment-surface samples (n=117) covering the alpine meadow evenly on the east and central Tibetan Plateau, in July and August 2018. For pollen extraction, approximately 10 g (wet original sediment) per sample were sub-sampled. Pollen sample was processed by the standard acid-alkali-acid procedures followed by 7-μm-mesh sieving. More than 500 terrestrial pollen grains were counted for each sample. Pollen assemblages of the dataset from alpine meadow are dominated by Cyperaceae (mean is 68.4%, maximum is 95.9%), with other herbaceous pollen taxa as commen taxa including Poaceae (mean is 10.3%, maximum is 87.7%), Ranunculaceae (mean is 4.8%, maximum is 33.6%), Artemisia (mean is 3.7%, maximum is 24.5%), Asteraceae (mean is 2.1%, maximum is 33.6%), etc. Salix (mean is 0.4%, maximum is 5.3%) is the major shrub taxon in these pollen assemblages, while arboreal taxa occur with low percentages generally (mean of total arboreal percentages is 0.9% (maximum is 5.8%), including mainly Pinus (mean is 0.3%, maximum is 1.8%), Betula (mean is 0.1%, maximum is 0.9%) and Alnus (mean is 0.1%, maximum is 0.7%). These pollen assemblages represent the plant components well in the alpine meadow communities, although they are influenced slightly by long-distance pollen grain transported by wind or river (such as these arboreal pollen taxa). Together with pollen counts and percentages, we also provided the modern climatic data for the sampled lakes. The China Meteorological Forcing Dataset (CMFD; gridded near-surface meteorological dataset) with a temporal resolution of three hours and a spatial resolution of 0.1° was employed, and the climatic data of the nearest pixel of one sampled lake was defined to represent climatic conditions of the lake. Finally, the mean annual precipitation (Pann), mean annual temperature (Tann) and mean temperature of the coldest month (Mtco) and warmest month (Mtwa) are calculated for each sampled lake.
CAO Xianyong, TIAN Fang, LI Kai, NI Jian
This dataset is derived from the paper: Tang, H. et al. (2020). Early Oligocene vegetation and climate of southwestern China inferred from palynology. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 560, 109988. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2020.109988 This data is part of Supplementary data of the paper, maily contains: Supplementary table 1) Pollen percentages, which were calculated using the collected pollen samples. Supplementary table 2) Plant functional types (PFTs) for the reconstructed paleovegetation of three sites : Wenshan (Early Oligocene), Jianchuan (Early Oligocene) and Lühe (Late Eocene). Recently, in the town of Lühe, central Yunnan, SW China, a new fossil-bearing section was found and dated as early Oligocene (~33–32 Ma) according to U-Pb isotope of volcanic tuff. The fossil-bearing section totals about 18 m in thickness. Fifty-five pollen samples were collected vertically throughout this Lühe town section. For each sample, 2–2.5 g of sediment were treated with KOH (10%,) HCl (10%) and HF (39%), then sample residues were sieved through a 5 μm nylon mesh in an ultrasonic tank. Spore and pollen grains were identified using both a light microscope (LM, Leica DM1000 microscope) and a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Single grains were picked up by a capillary tube and then transferred to a copper stub, coated with gold and observed with a Zeiss EVO LS10 SEM. At least 300 pollen grains were counted for each sample under the LM at ×400 magnification. Then the pollen percentages were calculated using the sum of total terrestrial pollen. The paleovegetation was reconstructed following the method described by Prentice et al., 1996, Prentice and Jolly, 2000 and Ni et al. (2010). The paleobiomes were reconstructed by comparing the similarity of the palaeoflora with modern plant functional types (PFTs), according to the data published by Ni et al. (2010). The similarity between the palaeoflora and modern PFTs data was explored using Euclidean distances (Prentice et al., 1996) and the Jaccard Index Coefficient (Pound and Salzmann, 2017). The Jaccard Index Coefficient in the R package “clusteval” was used here to calculate the similarity. The palaeoflora was assigned to the biome with the highest similarity scores, taking into account dominant or key taxa.
Guided by the theory of plate tectonics, paleogeography, petroliferous basin analysis and sedimentary basin dynamics, we have collected a large number of data and achievements of geological research and petroleum geology in recent years, including strata, sedimentation, paleontology, paleogeography, paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, structure, oil and gas (potash) geology and other basic materials, especially paleomagnetism, Paleogene Based on the data of detrital zircon and geochemistry, combined with the results of typical measured stratigraphic sections, the lithofacies and climate paleogeographic pattern of Cretaceous were restored and reconstructed, and two lithofacies paleogeographic maps of early and late Cretaceous of Pan tertiary and two climate paleogeographic maps of early and late Cretaceous of Pan tertiary were obtained, aiming at discussing the influence of paleogeography, paleostructure and paleoclimate In order to reveal the geological conditions and resource distribution of oil and gas formation, and provide scientific basis and technical support for China's overseas and domestic oil and gas exploration deployment.
1) Data content: Paleomagnetic data, magnetic index data, major element percentage data and chemical weathering index can establish the paleomagnetic age framework of the Dahonggou section and restore the precipitation change and chemical weathering history in geological history. 2) Data sources and processing methods The data source is experimental data. Paleomagnetic data: a cylindrical sample of 2x2x2cm was drilled with a small gasoline drill and measured with a low-temperature superconducting magnetometer in a magnetic shielding room. Magnetic data: the samples collected in the field were ground into fine particles by mortar and put into 2x2x2 non-magnetic plastic box, and tested by kappa bridge susceptibility meter, pulse magnetometer and rotating magnetometer. Mass percentage content and chemical weathering index data of major elements in the whole sample and particle size fraction: firstly, the whole sample and particle size fraction sample were pretreated with acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide to remove carbonate and organic matter, and then pressed into a round cake with a diameter of about 4cm and a thickness of about 8mm by a pressure apparatus, and finally XRF fluorescence analysis was carried out. 3) Data quality The sample collection and experimental processing are carried out according to strict standards, and the data quality is reliable. 4) Data application achievements and Prospects Three SCI papers were published using this set of data, one of which is Ni.
The data include the Cenozoic plant fossils collected from Gansu, Qinghai and Yunnan by the Department of paleontology, School of Geological Sciences and mineral resources, Lanzhou University from 2019 to 2020. All the fossils were collected by the team members in the field and processed in the laboratory by conventional fossil restoration methods and cuticle experiment methods. The fossils are basically well preserved, some of which are horned The study of these plant fossils is helpful to understand the Cenozoic paleoenvironment, paleoclimate, paleogeographic changes and vegetation features of the eastern Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
This dataset is derived from the paper: Deng, W. et al. (2020). Sharp changes in plant diversity and plant-herbivore interactions during the Eocene–Oligocene transition on the southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Global and Planetary Change, 194, 103293. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2020.103293 This data contains herbivore damage patterns on fossil leaves of plant assemblages from the latest Eocene layer and the earliest Oligocene layer in Kajun Village, Markam County, southeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Herbivore damage patterns on fossil leaves are essential to explore the evolution of plant-herbivore interactions under paleoenvironmental changes and to better understand the evolutionary history of terrestrial ecosystems. The Eocene–Oligocene transition (EOT) is a period of dramatic paleoclimate changes that significantly impacted global ecosystems, Researchers identified taxonomic composition of the flora, and investigated well-preserved herbivore damage on fossil leaves from two layers(the latest Eocene layer (MK-3, ~34.6 Ma) and the earliest Oligocene layer (MK-1, ~33.4 Ma)) of the Lawula Formation in Markam County, southeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP), China. The data contains tables of the records of the leaves fossil, the fileds of the tables are as following: Basic Code; Database RFID; Family code; Genera code; Species code; Marks; Plant-herbivore; Leaves for damage; FFGs & DTs; Code marks; Hole feeding; Margin feeding; Skeletonization; Surface feeding; Piercing & Sucking; Oviposition; Mining; Galling; Fungal; Incertae Sedis; Boring; Undefined This dataset also contains some figures in the article.
DENG Weiyudong, SU Tao
1) Data content: multi-model ensemble mean wind speed at 200 hPa and 850 hPa during the Last Glacial Maximum, mid-Holocene and pre-industrial period (reflecting high and low level westerlies), 850 hPa meridional and zonal winds (reflecting the East Asian monsoon circulation) and zonal mass streamfunction (reflecting Walker circulation); 2) Data sources: monthly data simulated by multiple climate models from the second and third stages of the international Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project; processing methods: multi-model equal weight arithmetic mean, monthly climate average; 3) Data application: used for the study of paleoclimate change and dynamic mechanism.
TIAN Zhiping, WANG Na
The study of fossils in Bangor and Lunpola is of great significance, and the date of fossils is indispensable. There are volcanic tuffs in this area. Zircon can be used for U-Pb age analysis to determine the age of strata and fossils. This data shows the zircon U-Pb age analysis results of tuff samples from bango and Lunpola fossil sites in a graphical way. The figure shows the shape of a large number of zircons, and indicates the age analysis results on different zircon samples. The data show the large sample size used in related research, and the analysis results are also clear. The image display of this data is intuitive and clear, and the results are reliable, which is of great significance to the study of the Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
This data is the distribution data of the prehistoric era sites on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and surrounding areas, which is derived from the Supplementary Maps of the paper: Chen, F.H., Dong, G.H., Zhang, D.J., Liu, X.Y., Jia, X., An, C.B., Ma, M.M., Xie, Y.W., Barton, L., Ren, X.Y., Zhao, Z.J., & Wu, X.H. (2015). Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. SCIENCE, 347, 248-250. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with an average altitude of more than 4000m, is the highestand largest plateau all around the world, and also is one of the most unsuitable areas for human life with long-term on the earth. The remains at the archaeological site are direct evidences left behind the ancient human activities. The original data of this data is digitized from the results of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau high-textual census and archaeological survey (Qinghai Volume and Tibet Volume of the Chinese Cultural Relics Atlas). The map was digitized mainly based on the distribution maps of the sites, and the latitude and longitude coordinates and altitude were obtained. a total of 6,950 sites, most of which are distributed in the northern part of the plateau. The age range of the site is between 7000BP and 2300BP. This data set is of reference value for the research on the process and power of human diffusion to the Tibetan Plateau in the prehistoric era and other studies related to human activities in the Tibetan Plateau and the prehistoric era.
DONG Guanghui, LIU Fengwen
The Lunpola Basin distributed in the central part of the Banggong-Nujiang suture belt contains thick and continuous Cenozoic sediments, which have great potential for increasing our understanding of the tectonic uplift, paleoaltimetry, erosion, and depositional history of the Tibetan Plateau and climate environmental evolution. In this study, detailed investigations were carried on a Cenozoic continuous lacustrine sedimentary section, Lunpori (LPR), from the upper sequence of the central basin. Constrained by tie points of U-Pb zircon ages in the layers of tuffs and mammalian fossils of a rhinocerotid humerus, paleomagnetic methods yield ages of ~21.2 to 15 Ma for the section. In addition, we further select some parameters (e.g., magnetic susceptibility and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM)) to establish a high-resolution magnetic record to explore the paleoclimate change. The magnetic susceptibility is measured by Kappabridge while the SIRM is measured by Mini spin and Impulse Magnetizer. The results suggest that magnetic susceptibility (χ) gradually increases during the period of semi-deep to the deep lake but shows a decrease in the stage of the shallow lake. Combining with the maximum values of χ often appearing in the layer of sandstones and no obvious correlation between the χ and SIRM, we preliminarily considered that the supply of detritus may dominate the variation of the χ. Lithofacies, pollen, and fossil records suggest that a relatively temperate, humid climate prevailed in the Lunpola Basin during the sedimentary period of the Dingqinghu Fm.
This data set is composed of two sedimentary profiles of Huangyang river a (altitude: 2447 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E) and B (altitude: 2454 m, depth: 3.20 m, 37 ° 25 ′ n 102 ° 36 ′ E). Both of them are located in the hilly area at the northern foot of Qilian Mountain, 1km apart. The annual precipitation here is about 500mm, and the annual average temperature is about 2 ℃. The interval between the two slices was 2 cm, and 160 samples were obtained from each slice to analyze the total organic carbon, carbonate content, particle size and other information. The data set is of great significance to the study of paleoclimate / paleoenvironment.
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We have completed the pollen analyses of 252 sedimentary samples from Dahonggou section in Qaidam Basin covering the Cenozoic. Palynomorph extraction followed the routine process with HCl and HF treatments during the extraction. Airborne pollen-charcoal traps and surface-sediment samples from soils were collected to evaluate the relationship between pollen-charcoal contents and vegetation structure, and effect of sedimentary environment conditions on the pollen dispersal and deposition. Combined with pollen-charcoal data from other sections, we are going to establish the fire history spanning the last 30 Ma years, and to discuss the responds and feedbacks of the vegetation and fire to the climate changes. Our work is beneficial to the knowledge of the processes of aridification in Inner Asia and its mechanism. The submitted pollen data set is according to the proposal, and in order to guarantee data accuracy, 20% of the data have been examined in our lab by random sampling method. Data collection and analysis are continued, we hope our work can contribute more to the project in the next few years.
Clay minerals are the weathering products of the parent rocks, which was formed by a series of chemical processes under a specific climate, and they are also widely-used indicators to reconstruct the history of the regional paleochemical weathering process. In this study, we present a detailed mineralogical investigation of 76 clay samples collected from the Lunpori section (21-15 Ma) in the Lunpola Basin by using X-ray diffraction. The results show that illite-smectite mixed layers, illite, chlorite, and kaolinite are the common clay mineral types in this section. The illite-smectite mixed layers and illite are the most abundant ones, which account for 80-90% of the total clay content; while the content of kaolinite and chlorite is relatively low, only occupying ~10-20% of the total clay minerals. The variations of clay mineral content are relatively stable in the Lunpori section, thus indicating that the intensity of regional chemical weathering was less variable during this period.
This dataset is derived from the paper: Ding, J., Wang, T., Piao, S., Smith, P., Zhang, G., Yan, Z., Ren, S., Liu, D., Wang, S., Chen, S., Dai, F., He, J., Li, Y., Liu, Y., Mao, J., Arain, A., Tian, H., Shi, X., Yang, Y., Zeng, N., & Zhao, L. (2019). The paleoclimatic footprint in the soil carbon stock of the Tibetan permafrost region. Nature Communications, 10(1), 4195. doi:10.1038/s41467-019-12214-5. This data contains R code and a new estimate of Tibetan soil carbon pool to 3 m depth, at a 0.1° spatial resolution. Previous assessments of the Tibetan soil carbon pools have relied on a collection of predictors based only on modern climate and remote sensing-based vegetation features. Here, researchers have merged modern climate and remote sensing-based methods common in previous estimates, with paleoclimate, landform and soil geochemical properties in multiple machine learning algorithms, to make a new estimate of the permafrost soil carbon pool to 3 m depth over the Tibetan Plateau, and find that the stock (38.9-34.2 Pg C) is triple that predicted by ecosystem models (11.5 ± 4.2 Pg C), which use pre-industrial climate to initialize the soil carbon pool. This study provides evidence that illustrates, for the first time, the bias caused by the lack of paleoclimate information in ecosystem models. The data contains the following fields: Longitude (°E) Latitude (°N) SOCD (0-30cm) (kg C m-2) SOCD (0-300cm) (kg C m-2) GridArea (k㎡) 3mCstcok (10^6 kg C)
DING Jinzhi, WANG Tao
The marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments from the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the three well exposed outcrop profiles from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on rock magnetism. All the samples for the Palpa section with depth of 120 m had been performed on mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Meanwhile, the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and the hysteresis loops was acquired from the fine sediments, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs).
Lake sediment is important archive for reconstructing the past climate change, in which the chronological framework of sediments is the basis. Varve is a kind of sedimentary lamina formed in pairs in lake sediments, usually with one year as a cycle. Supported by the projects the Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences “Pan-Third Pole Environment Study for a Green Silk Road (Pan-TPE)” and The Second Tibetan Plateau Scientific Expedition and Research, the authors obtained a 1-meter long sediment gravity core from Jiangco in the central Tibet Plateau, and found well preserved varves. Subsequently, core thin sections were made, and the varve and its thickness were counted and measured to obtain the chronological sequence from 81 A.D. to 2015. The precipitation in this area in the past 2000 years has been reconstructed by using the percentage of coarse-grained layer thickness in the total varve thickness, which represents the precipitation. High resolution and high-precision chronology and precipitation records can provide reliable background of climate and environmental change, and provide reference for paleoclimate simulation and the rise and fall of ancient civilization.
This data set is the hydrogen isotope data of leaf wax from 10 m core of Qinghai Lake in Tengchong, Southeast of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. Tengchong Qinghai Lake is a small crater lake in Gaoligong Mountain, Southwest China. Core samples were collected at about 4m in the center of the lake in 2017. Ams-14c dating was used to establish the age series. The n-alkane leaf wax hydrogen isotope was determined and analyzed by Agilent 6890 GC gas chromatograph and Deltaplus XL type chromatography isotope mass spectrometry. The data reflect the information of atmospheric precipitation isotope in this area, and play an important role in the study of monsoon precipitation changes in southwest monsoon region in the past 40000 years. Data acquisition, pre-processing extraction and instrument testing were completed in strict accordance with the relevant operating procedures.