The marine- and terrestrial-facies sediments from the southern piedmont of the Himalayan margin recorded the tectonic deformation and environmental evolution of the front edge of continental collision. To better understand the deformation mechanism of the southern Himalayan margin and constrain the continental collision age, we selected the three well exposed outcrop profiles from late Cretaceous to middle Eocene strata in the western Nepal and carried on rock magnetism. All the samples for the Palpa section with depth of 120 m had been performed on mass-specific magnetic susceptibility (χlf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM), and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Meanwhile, the isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and the hysteresis loops was acquired from the fine sediments, and several important magnetic parameters were determined, including the saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation remanent magnetization (Mrs).
Data content: Standard ring-width chronology derived from Wilson juniper shrub around the northern shore of the Nam Co Lake; May-June SZI (Standardized Moisture Anomaly Index) drought reconstruction for the Nam Co region. Time span: 1605 to 2010. Temporal resolution: Yearly. Application and prospects: Hydroclimate study on the south-central Tibetan Plateau.
LU Xiaoming HUANG Ru WANG Yafeng ZHANG Baoqing ZHU Haifeng CAMARERO J. Julio LIANG Eryuan*
By archaeological investigation and excavation in Tibetan Plateau and Hexi corridor, we discovered more than 40 Neolithic and Bronze Age sites, including Zongri, Sanjiaocheng, Huoshiliang, Ganggangwa, Yigediwonan, Shaguoliang, Guandi, Maolinshan, Dongjicuona, Nuomuhong, Qugong, Liding and so on. In this dataset, there are some basic informations about these sites, such as location, longitude, latitude, altitude, material culture and so on. On this Basis, we identified animal remains, plant fossil, selected some samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence dating, stable carbon, nitrogen isotopes, polle, fungal sporen and environmental proxies. This dataset provide important basic data for understanding when and how prehistoric human lived in the Tibetan Plateau during the Neolithic and Bronze Age.
DONG Guanghui YANG Xiaoyan Lü Hongliang LIU Xiangjun HOU Guangliang
Cenozoic sedimentary strata, which have been extensively developed in the low Himalaya region of western Nepal, provide an opportunity to study the dynamics of plateau uplift and the effects of climate and environment. According to a detailed field explored in the region nearly 10 sections, we found that a typical Cenozoic strata in the area is mainly composed of passive continental margin sedimentary of India's Tansen group and the Himalayas of foreland basin of Siwalik group, thickness of the Tansen group of 2000-3000 m, bottom-up Cenozoic strata, including the Amile group (Amile), and Bhainskati group (Bhainskati), Dumri group (Dumri); The Siwalik group, up to 4000m-6000m, is mainly composed of the lower, middle and upper west Siwalik. Cenozoic strata in Butwal section (309 m, including Amile and upper Bhainskati formation), Tulsipur section (357 m, including the top of Amile group and Bhainskati group formation) and Kalyan section (1161 m, including upper Bhainskati group formation and Dumri formation) are well exposed. High precise (with 1 m spacing) paleomagnetic chronology and environmental proxies samples collected in those three sections. By giving the precise stratigraphic age and paleoenvironmental data, it is of great significance to explore whether the north-south monsoon and drought events on the plateau are coupled and synchronized, and to reveal their relationship with the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan Plateau and global change.
This magnetic susceptibility data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the eastern Tibet Plateau. We analyzed the magnetic susceptibility of the top part of the loess sequence at 5cm intervals, and obtained 200 sets of magnetic susceptibility data. The experimental analysis was completed in the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Air-dried and grind the samples were put it into a non-magnetic cubic box, and measured by the British Bartington MS2. The result indicates the varations of the low frequency magnetic susceptibility of the Loess sequence since the Last Interglacial at Ganzi area, which is of great importance for understanding past environment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
This data is the grain size data set of the XS loess section at Ganzi in the east of Qinghai Tibet Plateau. The whole section is 10 meters thick, and the grain size analysis is carried out according to the interval of 2.5cm. A total of 398 groups of grain size data are obtained. The grain size analysis was carried out at the Key Laboratory of Western China's Environmental Systems（Ministry of Education), Lanzhou University. Before the measurement, the organic matter and carbonate in the sample were removed by H2O2 and hydrochloric acid, then adding the sodium hexago-hydrophosphate and vibrating for about 10 min to disperse samples by using ultrasonic apparatus. All measurements are conducted by using the Mastersizer 2000. This data reflects variations of the loess grain size since the last interglacial, which is of great importance for understanding past evionroment changes in the eastern Tibet Plateau.
The data set integrated glacier inventory data and 426 Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI images, and adopted manual visual interpretation to extract glacial lake boundaries within a 10-km buffer from glacier terminals using ArcGIS and ENVI software, normalized difference water index maps, and Google Earth images. It was established that 26,089 and 28,953 glacial lakes in HMA, with sizes of 0.0054–5.83 km2, covered a combined area of 1692.74 ± 231.44 and 1955.94 ± 259.68 km2 in 1990 and 2018, respectively.The current glacial lake inventory provided fundamental data for water resource evaluation, assessment of glacial lake outburst floods, and glacier hydrology research in the mountain cryosphere region
This data set comes from shallow marine carbonate sections at Tingri and Gamba, south Tibet. The age of these samples is about 56 Ma (at the Paleocene-Eocene boundary). At Tingri, we studied two parallel sections (13ZS section and 10-11TM section), and at Gamba, we studied one section (11TMG). From the 13ZS section, we analyzed carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions and calcium carbonate content of the whole carbonate rock, as well as the in-situ carbon isotopic compositions and element contents of the foraminifera shell. From the 10-11TM section, we analyzed carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic compositions of the whole rock. From the 11TMG section, we analyzed carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole carbonate rock. Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of the whole rock were measured by gas isotope mass spectrometer (MAT251), strontium isotope by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), calcium carbonate content by acid dissolution, in-situ carbon isotopic compositions by SIMS, and in-situ element contents by LA-ICPMS. Among these data, in-situ carbon isotope data were obtained from the laboratory of Professor John Valley at the University of Wisconsin-Madison in the United States, and the rest are from the relevant laboratories of the Department of Geosciences at the University of Bremen in Germany. Based on these data, we published three peer-reviewed papers on Journals of Gondwana Research, GSA Bulletin, and Global and Planetary Change.
This dataset is collected from the Supplementary Materials part of the paper "Chen, F.H., Dong, G.H., Zhang, D.J., Liu, X.Y., Jia, X., An, C.B., Ma, M.M., Xie, Y.W., Barton, L., Ren, X.Y., Zhao, Z.J., & Wu, X.H. (2015). Agriculture facilitated permanent human occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3600 BP. Science, 347, 248–250.". In this paper, researchers analyzed animal bones, plant remains and other artefacts from 53 sites across the northeastern Tibetan plateau and found that humans began to relocate to the elevations above 4000 masl after the emergence of Barley. According to the study, the prehistoric human expansion into the higher, colder altitudes of the Tibetan plateau took place as the continental temperatures had themselves become colder after 3,600 calendar years before the present, thus, the key impetus of the expansion was agricultural innovation rather than climate change. This dataset contains 4 tables, table names and content are as follows: Data list: The data name list of the rest tables; t1: Calibrated radiocarbon dates and domesticated plant and animal remains from sites investigated on the NETP; t2: Radiocarbon dates of the Paleolithic sites on the Tibetan Plateau; t3: OSL dates of the Paleolithic sites on the Tibetan Plateau. See attachments for data details: Supplementary Materials.pdf, Agriculture Facilitated Permanent Human Occupation of the Tibetan Plateau after 3,600 BP.pdf.
This data is a standard chronology of the ring width of five species of tamarix chinensis shrub in the lakeside terrace of the east juyan sea, which represents the changes of the lake water level in the east juyan sea in the past 100 years.
Data source description: The data are generated by arranging the literature. Test method: zircon U-Pb isotope LA-(MC)-ICPMS test; Re-Os isotope dilution method TIMS test. Data processing method: The data are automatically acquired by the analytical instrument, and the dating data are calculated using ISOPLOT software. The accuracy of the raw data: The accuracy of the zircon age test is shown in the error analysis value in the table; the accuracy of the Re-Os isotope analysis is shown in the error analysis value in the table. Data generating process: The first author personally analyzes and obtains the data, strictly in accordance with the experimental specifications Applications: Geology Data accuracy after processing: The accuracy of the processed data table is basically consistent with the analysis accuracy. The data contains 2 tables: (1) Zircon U-Pb isotope age analysis results table and (2) Whole rock and spinel Re-Os isotope 7 U-Pb zircon age data and 5 Re-Os isotope data. Data Types: Table 1: Zircon U-Pb age Data type: digital Table 2: Whole rock and spinel Re-Os isotopes Data type: digital Dimensions (unit of measure): "Zircon U-Pb age" dimension: Ma, "Re-Os isotope" dimension: ratio
Data source description: The data are generated by arranging the literature, and the references are as follows:  Huang, QS, Shi, RD, O'Reilly, SY, Griffin, WL, Zhang, M., Liu, DL, Zhang, XR, 2015. Re-Os isotopic constraints on the evolution of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic mantle, Central Tibet. Lithos, 224–225: 32-45. Test methods: major elements XRF test; trace elements ICP-MS test; mineral EPMA test; whole rock Re-Os isotope dilution method TIMS test; in situ sulfide LA-MC-PMS test. Data processing method: The data are automatically acquired by the analytical instrument, and the dating data are calculated using ISOPLOT software. The accuracy of the raw data: The accuracy of the major element analysis is 1-5%; the accuracy of the trace element analysis is 10%; and the accuracy of the Re-Os isotope analysis is shown in the error analysis value in the table. Data generation process: The first author has personally analyzed and obtained the data strictly in accordance with the experimental specifications. Applications: Geology Data accuracy after processing: The accuracy of the processed data table is basically consistent with the analysis accuracy. The data contain 7 tables. (1) Composition of major elements of peridotite whole rock (2) Re-Os isotope of peridotite whole rock (3) Sulfide Re-Os isotope (4) Trace elements in peridotite whole rock (5) Peridotite composition (6) Spinel composition (7) Sulfide composition 25 sets of composition data of major elements of peridotite whole rock; 42 Re-Os whole rock; 13 Re-Os sulfides; 25 trace whole rocks; 40 peridotite composition; 52 spinel composition; 16 sulfide composition. Data types: Table 1: Whole rock major elements Data type: digital Table 2: Whole Rock Re-Os Isotope Data type: digital Table 3: Sulfide Re-Os isotope Data type: digital Table 4: Whole rock trace elements Data type: digital Table 5: Peridotite composition Data type: digital Table 6: Spinel composition Data type: digital Table 7: Sulfide composition Data type: digital Dimensions (unit of measure): "whole rock major elements composition" dimension: percentage%; "Re-Os isotope" dimension: ratio; "trace element" dimension: ppm; "mineral composition" dimension: percentage%
This data set collected zircon U-Pb isotope age data of the granites in the southern Qiangtang terrane of the Tibetan Plateau from articles published before October 2014. The data were analyzed by Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICPMS), Sensitive High-Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), and Isotope Dilution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ID TIMS). The data were obtained according to laboratory standards, and the data quality met laboratory requirements. The data contents are as follows: Region Locality Lithology Sample No. Dating method Age (Ma) References
This data set is the result of systematic zircon Hf isotope testing performed on granites in the Bangong Lake, Gaize, Dongqiao and Anduo areas of south Qiangtang using the multireceiving Laser Ablation Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrum (LA-MC-ICP-MS) method. The data were obtained according to laboratory standards, and the quality met laboratory requirements. The data are mainly used in geological research of the Tibetan Plateau.
This dataset contains monthly 0.05°×0.05° (1982, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2000) and 0.01°×0.01° (2005, 2010, 2015 and 2017) LST products in Qilian Mountain Area. The dataset was produced based on SW algorithm by AVHRR BT from thermal infrared channels (CH4: 10.5µm to 11.3µm; CH5: 11.5µm to 12.5µm) at a resolution of 0.05°, MYD21A1 LST products at a resolution of 0.01° along with some auxiliary datasets. The auxiliary datasets include IGBP land cover type, AVHRR NDVI products, Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications-2 (MERRA-2) reanalysis data, ASTER GED, Lat/Lon and the Julian Day information.
WANG Junbo SHAO Xuemei
Since the formation of heihe, palynology data samples were collected from the borehole formation of dasunken well in the middle reaches of heihe.Borehole location: 39.491 n, 99.605 e.The borehole has a depth of 140 meters and 18 palynological samples are collected from top to bottom. Currently, there are 3 palynological results, which are distributed in each sedimentary phase from top to bottom.Impurities such as carbonate, organic matter and silicate were removed from palynology samples in the laboratory, and the palynology types and data were identified under the microscope.Palynology results mainly included the percentage and number of trees, shrubs, herbs, aquatic and ferns.
PAN Baotian HU Xiaofei
This data set contains a deep drilling paleomagnetic age data near the open sea in the middle reaches of Heihe River. The borehole is located at 99.432 E and 39.463 n with a depth of 550m. The samples of paleomagnetic age were taken at the interval of 10-50 cm. The paleomagnetic test was carried out in the Key Laboratory of Western Ministry of environmental education of Lanzhou University. The primary remanence of the samples was obtained by alternating demagnetization and thermal demagnetization, and the whole formation magnetic formation was obtained by using the primary remanence direction of each sample, and then the sedimentary age of the strata was obtained by comparing with the standard polarity column. The results show that the bottom boundary of the borehole is about 7 Ma and the top boundary is 0 ma.
HU Xiaofei PAN Baotian
Since the formation of Heihe River, sporopollen data samples have been collected from the drilling strata of Da'ao well in the middle reaches of Heihe River. Drilling location: 39.491 n, 99.605 E. The drilling depth is 140 meters. 128 samples of sporopollen are collected from top to bottom. At present, there are 19 data of sporopollen results, which are distributed in each sedimentary facies from top to bottom. The sporopollen samples were removed from carbonate, organic matter, silicate and other impurities in the laboratory, and the species and data of sporopollen were identified under the microscope. Sporopollen results mainly include the percentage content and number of trees, shrubs, herbs, aquatic, ferns and other families and genera.
HU Xiaofei PAN Baotian
Based on the study of the terrace formation age in the upper reaches of heihe river, photoluminescence samples were collected from the sediments of grade 6 river terrace near the upper reaches of qilian river.The quartz particles (38-63 microns) in the sample were isolated in the laboratory, the equivalent dose and dose rate in the quartz particles were measured, and the photoluminescence age of the sample was finally obtained.The obtained ages range from 5ka to 82ka, corresponding to the years of cutting down the terraces of all levels.
PAN Baotian HU Xiaofei
According to the formation age of the river terraces in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, the Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating analysis was performed on the sediments of Heihe terrace. The samples were mainly fluvial sand reservoirs, and the measuring object was quartz grains in sand. The formation age of the 6th-order terrace near Qilian in the upper reaches of the Heihe River was measured by Optically Stimulated Luminescence dating. The terrace age results showed that the terraces were mainly formed since the late Pleistocene (60ka-7ka). The sample sites of the chronological data are distributed near the mainstream of the Heihe River in the northwest of Qilian County in the upper reaches of the Heihe River.
HU Xiaofei PAN Baotian