The project of ecological security evaluation and landscape planning in the inner flow area of hexi corridor belongs to the major research plan of "environment and ecological science in western China" of the national natural science foundation, led by researcher xiao duning of the institute of cold and dry environment and engineering, Chinese academy of sciences. The project runs from Jan. 2002 to Dec. 2004. The data of the project is the ecological data of the inner flow area of hexi corridor, including heihe basin, shiyang river basin, shule river basin and river runoff. Investigation and analysis data of ejin banner in heihe river area 1. Soil moisture TDR data The data is stored in Excel format and includes both tubular and well 2002 soil moisture survey data. Tube TDR data Tubular soil moisture survey data with 1.8m underground intervals of 0.2 m on June 1, June 11, June 21, July 1, July 11, July 21, July 31, August 11 and August 21, 2002, including erdaqiao, gobi, forest farm, qidaqiao and tseng forest. Well TDR data Data of well soil moisture survey on June 21, July 1, July 11, July 21, July 31, August 11 and August 21, 2002, which included willows, gobi, populus euphratica and weeds, with intervals of more than 5 meters and 0.2 meters underground. Groundwater GPS data In Excel format, the TDR observation points were measured by GPS, including basic information such as longitude, latitude and elevation, plus information such as water level, logging type and remarks. 2. Soil nutrient salinity data To Excel format, 42 samples containing "total oxygen N %", "total phosphorus P %", "% organic matter", "hydrolysis N N mg/kg", "organic P P mg/kg", "available K K mg/kg", "% calcium carbonate", "PH", "the % of salt" and "total potassium % K" nutrient investigation and analysis of data, such as 42 samples containing "conductance value (%) computing the salt", CO3, HCO3, CI, SO4, Ca, mg, Na + K salt investigation and analysis of data, etc. 3. Soil mechanical composition In Excel format, 42 sample points contained soil particle composition information analysis tables of depth (cm), percentage of particle content at each level (sieve analysis method) (>2mm, 2-1mm, 1-0.5mm, 0.5-0.25mm and 0.25-0.1mm) and percentage of particle content at each level (straw method) (<0.1mm, 0.1-0.05mm, 0.05-0.02mm, 0.02-0.002mm and <0.002mm). 4. Meteorological data of erqi station Is the Excel sheet, including rainfall data from 1957 to 1998, evaporation data from 1957 to 1998, temperature data from 1957 to 1991, wind speed data from 1972 to 1992, maximum temperature data from 1972 to 1992, minimum temperature data from 1972 to 1992, sunshine data from 1972 to 1992 and relative humidity data from 1972 to 1992. Scan copy of jiuquan area The scanning copy of the general map of land use status in jiuquan 1:300,000, the scanning copy of the evaluation map of the distribution of cultivated land reserve resources in jiuquan 1:300,000 and the scanning copy of the district map of jiuquan 1:300,000 Zhang ye water protection information It contains the statistics of water and soil conservation in the regions of ganzhou district, gaotai district, linze county, minle county, shandan county, sunan county and zhangye city in zhangye region (stored in Excel format) and the planning report of each region (stored in Word format). Shiyang river basin Jinchang water resources survey data It includes the scan of 1:50000 water resource distribution map of jinchang city in 1997, the average decline degree of groundwater level in qinghe and jinchuan irrigation areas in jinchang city from 81 to 2000, the statistical table of annual groundwater supply in 1986, 1995 and 2001, and the survey and evaluation report of cultivated land reserve resources in jinchang city. Survey data of water resources in minqin Includes detailed minqin county area typical Wells status per acre crops irrigation water use questionnaire, irrigation, industrial and agricultural water use questionnaire, seeded area of villages and towns questionnaire, the survey data of groundwater hardness index, minqin county of surface runoff and the runoff change situation report, irrigation water quota formulation of evaluation report, minqin county water resources development and utilization of report and opinion polls irrigation works report, etc. Zoning map of soil improvement and utilization in wuwei area For the scanning part of water and soil conservation planning map of wuwei city, the scanning part of the location map of wuwei irrigation area, the scanning part of the scanning part of the administrative map of wuwei city, the scanning part of the water source and water conservancy project construction map of wuwei city, the scanning part of the planning map of wuwei sanbei phase ii shelterbelt project and the scanning part of the administrative map of liangzhou district. Yongchang county water protection information It is the scanning copy of the soil and water conservation supervision, prevention and control plan of 1994 in yongchang county at 1:20000. Shule river basin Distribution map of water resources development and utilization in yumen city It consists of four jpeg images, a 1:250,000 general scanning map of yumen's water resources development and utilization in 2002, and three high-resolution sub-maps. River runoff This data set is stored in Excel format, mainly including the total flow of three basins from 1949 to 2002, the annual runoff of each tributary of the basin, the annual runoff of detailed investigation areas such as jiuquan and the upstream inflow of yuanyang pond reservoir. Total basin Is the annual runoff data of heihe river basin, shiyang river basin and shule river basin from 1949 to 2002. Annual runoff of black river Is the annual runoff data of heihe river, liyuan river, taolai river, hongshui river, qingshui river, fengle river and hongsha river from 1949 to 2002. Annual runoff of shiyang river Is the annual runoff data of xidahe river, dongdahe river, xiying river, jinta river, zama river, huangyang river, gulang river, dajing river and other tributaries from 1949 to 2002. Annual runoff of shule river Is the annual runoff data of dang river, shule river and harten river from 1950 to 2002. Annual river runoff in jiuquan area For the annual flow data of changma gorge of shule river, dangcheng bay of danghe river, junmiao of shule river, baiyang river, icegou of toulai river, yuanyang pond of toulai river, xindi of hongshui river, fengle river, hongsha river of maying river and suang river of yulin river in jiuquan region from 1950 to 2002. Statistics of upstream inflow of yuanyang pond reservoir The data are the upstream inflow data of yuanyang pond reservoir from 1959 to 2001.
This data is from the central station of environmental monitoring in gansu province. The data includes three observation elements, namely sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and inhalable particles, which are published on the network. The data format is a text file. The first column is the city name, the second column is sulfur dioxide, the third column is nitrogen dioxide, the fourth column is pm10, and the fifth column is the observation date. The data included lanzhou, jiayuguan, jinchang, baiyin, tianshui, qingyang, pingliang, dingxi, longnan, wuwei, zhangye, jiuquan and linxia. This data will be updated automatically and continuously according to the data source.
Gansu environmental monitoring center station
This dataset contains the flux measurements from the Zhangye wetland station eddy covariance system (EC) in the flux observation matrix from 25 June to 26 September, 2012. The site (100.44640° E, 38.97514° N) was located in a wetland surface, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1460.00 m. The EC was installed at a height of 5.2 m; the sampling rate was 10 Hz. The sonic anemometer faced north, and the separation distance between the sonic anemometer and the CO2/H2O gas analyzer (Gill&Li7500A) was 0.25 m. Raw data acquired at 10 Hz were processed using the Eddypro post-processing software (Li-Cor Company, http://www.licor.com/env/products/ eddy_covariance/software.html), including spike detection, lag correction of H2O/CO2 relative to the vertical wind component, sonic virtual temperature correction, angle of attack correction, coordinate rotation (2-D rotation), corrections for density fluctuation (Webb-Pearman-Leuning correction), and frequency response correction. The EC data were subsequently averaged over 30 min periods. Moreover, the observation data quality was divided into three classes according to the quality assessment method of stationarity (Δst) and the integral turbulent characteristics test (ITC), which was proposed by Foken and Wichura : class 1 (level 0: Δst<30 and ITC<30), class 2 (level 1: Δst<100 and ITC<100), and class 3 (level 2: Δst>100 and ITC>100), representing high-, medium-, and low-quality data, respectively. In addition to the above processing steps, the half-hourly flux data were screened in a four-step procedure: (1) data from periods of sensor malfunction were rejected; (2) data before or after 1 h of precipitation were rejected; (3) incomplete 30 min data were rejected when the missing data constituted more than 3% of the 30 min raw record; and (4) data were rejected at night when the friction velocity (u*) was less than 0.1 m/s. There were 48 records per day; the missing data were replaced with -6999. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. The released data contained the following variables: data/time, wind direction (Wdir, °), wind speed (Wnd, m/s), the standard deviation of the lateral wind (Std_Uy, m/s), virtual temperature (Tv, ℃), H2O mass density (H2O, g/m^3), CO2 mass density (CO2, mg/m^3), friction velocity (ustar, m/s), stability (z/L), sensible heat flux (Hs, W/m^2), latent heat flux (LE, W/m^2), carbon dioxide flux (Fc, mg/ (m^2s)), quality assessment of the sensible heat flux (QA_Hs), quality assessment of the latent heat flux (QA_LE), and quality assessment of the carbon flux (QA_Fc). In this dataset, the time of 0:30 corresponds to the average data for the period between 0:00 and 0:30; the data were stored in *.xlsx format. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2016) (for multi-scale observation experiment or sites information), Xu et al. (2013) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin LI Xin XU Ziwei
The data set includes soil pH data of representative soil samples collected from July 2012 to August 2013 in the Heihe River Basin. The first soil survey was conducted in 2012. After the representativeness evaluation of collected samples, we conducted an additional sampling in 2013. These samples are representative enough to represent the soil variation in the Heihe River Basin, of which the soil variation in each landscape could be accounted for. The sampling depths in field refer to the sampling specification of Chinese Soil Taxonomy, in which soil samples were taken from genetic soil horizons.
SONG Xiaodong ZHANG Ganlin
The surface air temperature dataset of the Tibetan Plateau is obtained by downscaling the China regional surface meteorological feature dataset (CRSMFD). It contains the daily mean surface air temperature and 3-hourly instantaneous surface air temperature. This dataset has a spatial resolution of 0.01°. Its time range for surface air temperature dataset is from 1979 to 2018. Spatial dimension of data: 73°E-106°E, 23°N-40°N. The surface air temperature with a 0.01° can serve as an important input for the modeling of land surface processes, such as surface evapotranspiration estimation, agricultural monitoring, and climate change analysis.
DING Lirong ZHOU Ji WANG Wei
This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from an observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of Daman Superstation from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (100.372° E, 38.856° N) was located on a cropland (maize surface) in the Daman irrigation, which is near Zhangye city, Gansu Province. The elevation is 1556 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (AV-14TH;3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), wind speed and direction profile (windsonic; 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 m, towards north), air pressure (CS100; 2 m), rain gauge (TE525M; 2.5 m, 8 m in west of tower), four-component radiometer (PIR&PSP; 12 m, towards south), two infrared temperature sensors (IRTC3; 12 m, towards south, vertically downward), photosynthetically active radiation (LI190SB; 12 m, towards south, vertically upward; another four photosynthetically active radiation, PQS-1; two above the plants (12 m) and two below the plants (0.3 m), towards south, each with one vertically downward and one vertically upward), soil heat flux (HFP01SC; 3 duplicates with G1 below the vegetation; G2 and G3 between plants, -0.06 m), a TCAV averaging soil thermocouple probe (TCAV; -0.02, -0.04 m), soil temperature profile (AV-10T; 0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_3 m, Ta_5 m, Ta_10 m, Ta_15 m, Ta_20 m, Ta_30 m, and Ta_40 m; RH_3 m, RH_5 m, RH_10 m, RH_15 m, RH_20 m, RH_30 m, and RH_40 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_3 m, Ws_5 m, Ws_10 m, Ws_15 m, Ws_20 m, Ws_30 m, and Ws_40 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_3 m, WD_5 m, WD_10 m, WD_15 m, WD_20 m, WD_30m, and WD_40 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (μmol/ (s m-2)), average soil temperature (TCAV, ℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, below the vegetation; Gs_2, and Gs_3, between plants) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content), above the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_U_up and PAR_U_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)), and below the plants photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_D_up and PAR_D_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day.The meterological data during September 17 and November 7 and TCAV data after November 7 were wrong because the malfunction of datalogger. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-6-10 10:30. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin, XU Ziwei LI Xin CHE Tao XU Ziwei REN Zhiguo TAN Junlei
This dataset is the Fractional Vegetation Cover observation in the artificial oasis experimental region of the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin. The observations lasted for a vegetation growth cycle from May 2012 to September 2012 (UTC+8). Instruments and measurement method: Digital photography measurement is implemented to measure the FVC. Plot positions, photographic method and data processing method are dedicatedly designed. Details are described in the following: 0. In ﬁeld measurements, a long stick with the camera mounted on one end is beneﬁcial to conveniently measure various species of vegetation, enabling a larger area to be photographed with a smaller ﬁeld of view. The stick can be used to change the camera height; a ﬁxed-focus camera can be placed at the end of the instrument platform at the front end of the support bar, and the camera can be operated by remote control. 1. For row crop like corn, the plot is set to be 10×10 m2, and for the orchard, plot scale is 30×30 m2. Shoot 9 times along two perpendicularly crossed rectangular-belt transects. The picture generated of each time is used to calculate a FVC value. “True FVC” of the plot is then acquired as the average of these 9 FVC values. 2. The photographic method used depends on the species of vegetation and planting pattern: Low crops (<2 m) in rows in a situation with a small ﬁeld of view (<30 ), rows of more than two cycles should be included in the ﬁeld of view, and the side length of the image should be parallel to the row. If there are no more than two complete cycles, then information regarding row spacing and plant spacing are required. The FVC of the entire cycle, that is, the FVC of the quadrat, can be obtained from the number of rows included in the ﬁeld of view. 3. High vegetation in rows (>2 m) Through the top-down photography of the low vegetation underneath the crown and the bottom-up photography beneath the tree crown, the FVC within the crown projection area can be obtained by weighting the FVC obtained from the two images. Next, the low vegetation between the trees is photographed, and the FVC that does not lie within the crown projection area is calculated. Finally, the average area of the tree crown is obtained using the tree crown projection method. The ratio of the crown projection area to the area outside the projection is calculated based on row spacing, and the FVC of the quadrat is obtained by weighting. 4. FVC extraction from the classiﬁcation of digital images. Many methods are available to extract the FVC from digital images, and the degree of automation and the precision of identiﬁcation are important factors that affect the efﬁciency of ﬁeld measurements. This method, which is proposed by the authors, has the advantages of a simple algorithm, a high degree of automation and high precision, as well as ease of operation.
MU Xihan HUANG Shuai MA Mingguo
Snow is a significant component of the ecosystem and water resources in high-mountain Asia (HMA). Therefore, accurate, continuous, and long-term snow monitoring is indispensable for the water resources management and economic development. The present study improves the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua satellites 8 d (“d” denotes “day”) composite snow cover Collection 6 (C6) products, named MOD10A2.006 (Terra) and MYD10A2.006 (Aqua), for HMA with a multistep approach. The primary purpose of this study was to reduce uncertainty in the Terra–Aqua MODIS snow cover products and generate a combined snow cover product. For reducing underestimation mainly caused by cloud cover, we used seasonal, temporal, and spatial filters. For reducing overestimation caused by MODIS sensors, we combined Terra and Aqua MODIS snow cover products, considering snow only if a pixel represents snow in both the products; otherwise it is classified as no snow, unlike some previous studies which consider snow if any of the Terra or Aqua product identifies snow. Our methodology generates a new product which removes a significant amount of uncertainty in Terra and Aqua MODIS 8 d composite C6 products comprising 46 % overestimation and 3.66 % underestimation, mainly caused by sensor limitations and cloud cover, respectively. The results were validated using Landsat 8 data, both for winter and summer at 20 well-distributed sites in the study area. Our validated adopted methodology improved accuracy by 10 % on average, compared to Landsat data. The final product covers the period from 2002 to 2018, comprising a combination of snow and glaciers created by merging Randolph Glacier Inventory version 6.0 (RGI 6.0) separated as debris-covered and debris-free with the final snow product MOYDGL06*. We have processed approximately 746 images of both Terra and Aqua MODIS snow containing approximately 100 000 satellite individual images. Furthermore, this product can serve as a valuable input dataset for hydrological and glaciological modelling to assess the melt contribution of snow-covered areas. The data, which can be used in various climatological and water-related studies, are available for end users at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.901821 (Muhammad and Thapa, 2019).
Sher Muhammad Sher Muhammad
The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands) mission was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 30, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters and properties, especially for dry and wet snow identification. Observation items included: (1) Snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the snowfork in BG-A; (2) Snow parameters including snow depth, the snow surface temperature synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands), the snow layer temperature, the snow grain size and snow density in BG-A (10 points), BG-B (6 points), BG-F (12 points), BG-H (21 points) and BG-I (20 points); For each snow pit, the snowpack was divided into several layers with 10-cm intervals of snow depth. The layer depth (by the ruler), the snow grain size (by the handheld microscope), snow density (by the cutting ring) and the snow temperature (by the probe thermometer) were obtained at each snow pit. Two files including raw data and the preprocessed data were archived.
GE Chunmei GU Juan HAO Xiaohua MA Mingguo WANG Jianhua WANG Xufeng LI Hua CHE Tao
This dataset is the FPAR observation in the artificial oasis experimental region of the middle stream of the Heihe River Basin. The observation period is from 24 May to 19 July, 2012 (UTC+8). Measurement instruments: AccuPAR (Beijing Normal University) Measurement positions: Core Experimental Area of Flux Observation Matrix 18 corn samples, 1 orchard sample, 1 artificial white poplar sample Measurement methods: For corn, to measure the incoming PAR on the canopy, transmission PAR under the canopy, reflected PAR on the canopy, reflected PAR under the canopy. For orchard and white poplar forest, to measure the incoming PAR outside of the canopy, transmission PAR under the canopy. Corresponding data: Land cover, plant height, crop rows identification
This data set includes the observation data of 40 water net sensor network nodes in Babao River Basin in the upper reaches of Heihe River since the end of June 2013. Soil moisture of 4cm, 10cm and 20cm is the basic observation of each node; 19 nodes include the observation of soil moisture and surface infrared radiation temperature; 11 nodes include the observation of soil moisture, surface infrared radiation temperature, snow depth and precipitation. The observation frequency is 5 minutes. The data set can be used for hydrological simulation, data assimilation and remote sensing verification.
JIN Rui KANG Jian LI Xin MA Mingguo
This dataset includes data recorded by the Hydrometeorological observation network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the observation system of Meteorological elements gradient of A’rou shady slope station between 8 August, 2013, and 31 December, 2013. The site (100.411° E, 37.984° N) was located on a cold grassland surface on the shady slope, which is near south of A’rou township, Qilian county, Qinghai Province. The elevation is 3536 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (HMP45AC; 5 m, north), wind speed and direction profile (010C/020C; 10 m, north), air pressure (278; in the tamper box on the ground), rain gauge (TE525M; 10 m), four-component radiometer (CNR4; 6 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (SI-111; 6 m, south, vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (109-L; 0, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), soil moisture profile (CS616; -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, and -1.6 m), and two photosynthetically active radiation (PQS-1; 6 m, south, one vertically downward and one vertically upward). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5 m; RH_5 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_10 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_10 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_80 cm, Ts_120 cm, and Ts_160 cm) (℃), soil moisture (Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_80 cm, Ms_120 cm, and Ms_160 cm) (%, volumetric water content), and photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_up and PAR_down) (μmol/ (s m-2)). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2013-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for hydrometeorological observation network or sites information), Liu et al. (2011) (for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin LI Xin CHE Tao XU Ziwei ZHANG Yang TAN Junlei
The dataset of ground truth measurement synchronizing with PROBA CHRIS was obtained in the Yingke oasis and Huazhaizi desert steppe foci experimental areas on Jun. 22, 2008. Observation items included: (1) Albedo by the shortwave radiometer in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot. R =10H (R for FOV radius; H for the probe height). Data were archived in Excel format. (2) BRDF of maize in Yingke oasis maize field by ASD (350-2 500 nm) from Beijing University and the observation platform of BNU make. The maximum height of the platform was 5m above the ground with the azimuth 0~360° and the zenith angle -60°~60°; BRDF in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by ASD from Institute of Remote Sensing Applications (CAS) and the observation platform of its own make, whose maximum height was 2m above the ground with the zenith angle -70°~70°. Raw data were binary files direct from ASD (by ViewSpecPro), and pre-processed data on reflectance were in Excel format. (3) Atmospheric parameters in Huazhaizi desert No. 2 plot by CE318 (produced by CIMEL in France). The total optical depth, aerosol optical depth, Rayleigh scattering coefficient, column water vapor in 936 nm, particle size spectrum and phase function were then retrieved from these observations. The optical depth in 1020nm, 936nm, 870nm, 670nm and 440nm were all acquired by CE318. Those data include the raw data in .k7 format and can be opened by ASTPWin. ReadMe.txt is attached for detail. Processed data (after retrieval of the raw data) in Excel format are on optical depth, rayleigh scattering, aerosol optical depth, the horizontal visibility, the near surface air temperature, the solar azimuth, zenith, solar distance correlation factors, and air column mass number.
This dataset includes data recorded by the Heihe integrated observatory network obtained from the automatic weather station (AWS) at the Sidaoqiao mixed forest station from January 1 to December 31, 2018. The site (101.134° E, 41.990° N) was located on a tamarix and populous forest (Tamarix chinensis Lour. and Populus euphratica Olivier.) surface in the Sidaoqiao, Dalaihubu Town, Ejin Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. The elevation is 874 m. The installation heights and orientations of different sensors and measured quantities were as follows: air temperature and humidity profile (28 m, north), wind speed and direction profile (28 m, north), air pressure (in tamper box), rain gauge (28 m, south), four-component radiometer (24 m, south), two infrared temperature sensors (24 m, south, vertically downward), two photosynthetically active radiation (24 m, south, one vertically upward and one vertically downward), soil heat flux (HFP01; 3 duplicates, -0.06 m), soil temperature profile (0, -0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0, -1.6, -2.0, -2.4 m), and soil moisture profile (-0.02, -0.04, -0.1, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -1.0, -1.6, -2.0, -2.4 m). The observations included the following: air temperature and humidity (Ta_28 m; RH_28 m) (℃ and %, respectively), wind speed (Ws_28 m) (m/s), wind direction (WD_28 m) (°), air pressure (press) (hpa), precipitation (rain) (mm), four-component radiation (DR, incoming shortwave radiation; UR, outgoing shortwave radiation; DLR_Cor, incoming longwave radiation; ULR_Cor, outgoing longwave radiation; Rn, net radiation) (W/m^2), infrared temperature (IRT_1 and IRT_2) (℃), photosynthetically active radiation of upward and downward (PAR_up and PAR_down) (μmol/ (s m^-2)), soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2 and Gs_3) (W/m^2), soil temperature (Ts_0 cm, Ts_2 cm, Ts_4 cm, Ts_10 cm, Ts_20 cm, Ts_40 cm, Ts_60 cm, Ts_100, Ts_160, Ts_200, Ts_240 cm) (℃), and soil moisture (Ms_2 cm, Ms_4 cm, Ms_10 cm, Ms_20 cm, Ms_40 cm, Ms_60 cm, Ms_100, Ms_160, Ms_200, Ms_240 cm) (%, volumetric water content). The data processing and quality control steps were as follows: (1) The AWS data were averaged over intervals of 10 min for a total of 144 records per day. The missing data were denoted by -6999. Due to the power loss of datalogger, there were occasionally data missing during January 1 to 9, and November 10 to December 14; (2) Data in duplicate records were rejected. (3) Unphysical data were rejected. (4) The data marked in red are problematic data. (5) The format of the date and time was unified, and the date and time were collected in the same column, for example, date and time: 2018-9-10 10:30. (6) Finally, the naming convention was AWS+ site no. Moreover, suspicious data were marked in red. For more information, please refer to Liu et al. (2018) (for sites information), Liu et al. (2011) for data processing) in the Citation section.
LIU Shaomin LI Xin CHE Tao XU Ziwei REN Zhiguo TAN Junlei
We produced surface photosynthetic effective radiation (PAR), solar radiation (SSR) and net radiation (NR) products with 1KM resolution in the heihe basin in 2012.The temporal resolution ranges from instantaneous to hourly and daily.Day-by-day ancillary data were also produced, including aerosol optical thickness, moisture content, NDVI, snow cover, and surface albedo.Among them, PAR and SSR use the method of lookup table to directly invert by combining the stationary weather satellite and polar orbit satellite MODIS product.NR was calculated by analyzing the relationship between net short-wave and net surface radiation.Hourly instantaneous products are weighted by average and integral to obtain hourly and daily cumulative products.
The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in No. 1 and 2 quadrates of the Biandukou foci experimental area on Oct. 17, 2007 during the pre-observation period. The ASAR data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 23:04 BJT. Both the quadrates were divided into 3×3 subsites, with each one spanning a 30×30 m2 plot. 25 sampling points were chosen, including centers and corners. Simultaneous with the satellite overpass, numerous ground data were collected: the soil temperature , volumetric soil moisture (cm^3/cm^3), soil salinity (s/m), soil conductivity (s/m) by the Hydra probe, the surface radiative temperature by the handheld infrared thermometer, gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, and soil bulk density by drying soil samples from the cutting ring (100cm^3). Meanwhile, vegetation parameters as height, coverage and water content were also observed. Those provide reliable ground data for the development and validation of soil moisture, soil freeze/thaw algorithms and the forward model from active remote sensing approaches.
BAI Yunjie LI Xin WANG Xufeng
This data set includes the continuous observation data set of light temperature and surface temperature and humidity measured by the vehicle borne microwave radiometer from November 10 to 14, 2013 in aroucaochang, arouxiang, Qilian County, Qinghai Province. The surface temperature and humidity include six layers of temperature sensor at the soil depth of 1cm, 3cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm and six layers of humidity sensor at the soil depth of 0-5cm. The time frequency of routine observation of soil temperature and humidity is 5 minutes. Data details: 1. Time: November 10-14, 2013 2. data: Brightness temperature: observed by vehicle mounted multi frequency passive microwave radiometer, including 6.925, 10.65, 18.7 and 36.5ghz V polarization and H polarization data Soil temperature: use the sensor installed on dt80 and dt85 to measure the soil temperature of 1cm, 5cm, 10cm, 20cm, and 1cm, 3cm, 5cm, 10cm, 15cm, which is measured by the sensor connected to dt80 Soil moisture: use h-probe sensor to measure 0-5cm soil moisture, the probe can measure 0-5cm soil temperature at the same time 3. Data size: 16.7M 4. Data format:. Xls
ZHAO Shaojie KOU Xiaokang YE Qinyu MA Mingguo
This data set contains meteorological element observation data from January 1, 2015 to April 17, 2015 from huangcaogou station, upstream of heihe hydrometeorological observation network.The station is located in huangcaogou village, ebao town, qilian county, qinghai province.The latitude and longitude of the observation point is 100.7312e, 38.0033n and 3137m above sea level.The air temperature and relative humidity sensors are located at 5m, facing due north.The barometer is installed in the anti-skid box on the ground;The tilting bucket rain gauge is installed at 10m;The wind speed and direction sensor is set at 10m, facing due north;The four-component radiometer is installed at 6m, facing due south;Two infrared thermometers are installed at 6m, facing due south, and the probe facing vertically downward;The soil temperature probe is buried at 0cm on the surface and 4cm underground, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm, 160cm, 2m to the south of the meteorological tower.The soil water probe is buried at 4cm, 10cm, 20cm, 40cm, 80cm, 120cm and 160cm underground, 2m to the south of the meteorological tower.The soil heat flow plates (3 pieces) are buried in the ground 6cm underground, 2m to the south of the meteorological tower. Observation projects are: air temperature and humidity (Ta_5m, RH_5m) (unit: c, percentage), pressure (Press) (unit: hundred mpa), precipitation (Rain) (unit: mm), wind speed (WS_10m) (unit: m/s), wind (WD_10m) (unit: degrees), the radiation of four component (DR, UR, DLR_Cor, ULR_Cor, Rn) (unit: watts per square meter), the surface radiation temperature (IRT_1, IRT_2) (unit:Soil heat flux (Gs_1, Gs_2, Gs_3) (in watts/m2), soil temperature (Ts_0cm, Ts_4cm, Ts_10cm, Ts_20cm, Ts_80cm, Ts_120cm, Ts_160cm) (in Celsius), soil moisture (Ms_4cm, Ms_10cm, Ms_20cm, Ms_40cm, Ms_80cm, Ms_120cm, Ms_160cm) (unit: percentage). Processing and quality control of observed data :(1) ensure 144 pieces of data every day (every 10min), and mark by -6999 in case of data missing;(2) excluding the time with duplicate records;(3) data that obviously exceeds the physical significance or the range of the instrument is deleted;(4) the part marked with red letter in the data is the data in question, and there are many questions about the measured wind direction of the station;(5) date and time have the same format, and date and time are in the same column.For example, the time is: September 10, 2015, 10:30;(6) the naming rule is: AWS+ site name.The station was demolished after April 17. For information of hydrometeorological network or station, please refer to Li et al. (2013), and for observation data processing, please refer to Liu et al. (2011).
LIU Shaomin LI Xin CHE Tao XU Ziwei ZHANG Yang TAN Junlei
The dataset of eddy covariance observations was obtained at the Dayekou Guantan forest station (E100°15′/N38°32′, 2835m), south of Zhangye city, Gansu province, from Dec. 27, 2007 to Dec. 31, 2009. Guantan forest station was dominated by the spruce 15-20m high and the surface was covered by moss 10cm deep. All the vegetation was in good condition. The original observation items included the latitudinal wind speed Ux (m/s), the latitudinal wind speed Uy (m/s), the longitudinal wind speed Uz (m/s), the ultrasonic temperature Ts (°C), co2 consistency (mg/m^3), h2o consistency (g/m^3), air pressure (KPa) and the abnormal ultrasonic signal (diag_csat). The instrument mount-height was 20.02m, the ultrasound direction was at an azimuth angle of 74°, the distance between Li7500 and CSAT3 was 30cm and sampling frequency was 10HZ. The dataset was distributed at three levels: Level0 were the raw data acquired by instruments; Level1, including the sensible heat flux (Hs), the latent heat flux (LE_wpl), and co2 flux (Fc_wpl), were real-time eddy covariance output data and stored in .csv month by month; Level2 were processed data in a 30-minute cycle after outliers elimination, coordinates rotation, frequency response correction, WPL correction and initial quality control. The data were named as follows: station name +data level+data acquisition date. As for detailed information, please refer to Meteorological and Hydrological Flux Data Guide and Eddy Covariance Observation Manual.
LI Xin MA Mingguo Wang Weizhen Huang Guanghui TAN Junlei ZHANG Zhihui
This data set includes the information of 21 conventional meteorological observation stations in Heihe River Basin and its surrounding areas, of which Wutonggou and Quixote stations have been cancelled in the 1980s, and other stations have operated since the establishment of the station. Station name, longitude and latitude 1. Mazong mountain 97.1097 41.5104 2. Yumen town 97.5530 39.8364 3. Wutonggou 98.3248 40.4697 4. Jiuquan 98.4975 39.7036 5. Jinta 98.9058 39.9988 6. Dingxin 99.5117 40.3080 7. Gaotai 99.7907 39.3623 8. Linze 100.165 39.1385 9. Sunan 99.6178 38.8399 10. Yeniugou 99.5830 38.4167 11. Tole 98.0147 39.0327 12. Ejina Banner 101.088 41.9351 13. Guaizi Lake 102.283 41.3662 14. Zhangye 100.460 38.9124 15. Shandan 101.083 38.7746 16. Folk music 100.826 38.4376 17. Alxa Right Banner 101.429 39.1407 18. Yongchang 101.578 38.1771 19. Qilian 100.238 38.1929 20. Gangcha 100.111 37.2478 21. Menyuan 101.379 37.2513 22. Gekkot 99.7063 41.9183 23. Jiayuguan 98.2241 39.7975
National Meteorological Information Center