Snow is a significant component of the ecosystem and water resources in high-mountain Asia (HMA). Therefore, accurate, continuous, and long-term snow monitoring is indispensable for the water resources management and economic development. The present study improves the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Terra and Aqua satellites 8 d (“d” denotes “day”) composite snow cover Collection 6 (C6) products, named MOD10A2.006 (Terra) and MYD10A2.006 (Aqua), for HMA with a multistep approach. The primary purpose of this study was to reduce uncertainty in the Terra–Aqua MODIS snow cover products and generate a combined snow cover product. For reducing underestimation mainly caused by cloud cover, we used seasonal, temporal, and spatial filters. For reducing overestimation caused by MODIS sensors, we combined Terra and Aqua MODIS snow cover products, considering snow only if a pixel represents snow in both the products; otherwise it is classified as no snow, unlike some previous studies which consider snow if any of the Terra or Aqua product identifies snow. Our methodology generates a new product which removes a significant amount of uncertainty in Terra and Aqua MODIS 8 d composite C6 products comprising 46 % overestimation and 3.66 % underestimation, mainly caused by sensor limitations and cloud cover, respectively. The results were validated using Landsat 8 data, both for winter and summer at 20 well-distributed sites in the study area. Our validated adopted methodology improved accuracy by 10 % on average, compared to Landsat data. The final product covers the period from 2002 to 2018, comprising a combination of snow and glaciers created by merging Randolph Glacier Inventory version 6.0 (RGI 6.0) separated as debris-covered and debris-free with the final snow product MOYDGL06*. We have processed approximately 746 images of both Terra and Aqua MODIS snow containing approximately 100 000 satellite individual images. Furthermore, this product can serve as a valuable input dataset for hydrological and glaciological modelling to assess the melt contribution of snow-covered areas. The data, which can be used in various climatological and water-related studies, are available for end users at https://doi.org/10.1594/PANGAEA.901821 (Muhammad and Thapa, 2019).
Sher Muhammad Sher Muhammad
The 2008 national remote sensing annual average surface temperature and freezing index is a 5 km instantaneous surface temperature data product based on MODIS Aqua/Terra four times a day by Ran Youhua et al. (2015). A new method for estimating the annual average surface temperature and freezing index has been developed. The method uses the average daily mean surface temperature observed by LST in morning and afternoon to obtain the daily mean surface temperature. The core of the method is how to recover the missing data of LST products. The method has two characteristics: (1) Spatial interpolation is carried out on the daily surface temperature variation observed by remote sensing, and the spatial continuous daily surface temperature variation obtained by interpolation is utilized, so that satellite observation data which is only once a day is applied; (2) A new time series filtering method for missing data is used, that is, the penalty least squares regression method based on discrete cosine transform. Verification shows that the accuracy of annual mean surface temperature and freezing index is only related to the accuracy of original MODIS LST, i.e. the accuracy of MODIS LST products is maintained. It can be used for frozen soil mapping and related resources and environment applications.
RAN Youhua LI Xin
This data set includes the observation data of 25 water net sensor network nodes in Babao River Basin in the upper reaches of Heihe River from January 2015 to December 2015. 4cm and 20cm soil moisture / temperature is the basic observation of each node; some nodes also include 10cm soil moisture / temperature, surface infrared radiation temperature, snow depth and precipitation observation. The observation frequency is 5 minutes. The data set can be used for hydrological simulation, data assimilation and remote sensing verification. For details, please refer to "2015 data document 20160501. Docx of water net of Babao River in the upper reaches of Heihe River"
JIN Rui KANG Jian LI Xin MA Mingguo
This data includes the distribution along the height of the blowing snow flux collected during the wind-blown snow event at the big winter tree pass observation station (longitude 100 degrees 14 minutes 28 seconds east and latitude 38 degrees 00 minutes 58 seconds north) on December 17, 2013 at solstice on July 9, 2014.
HUANG Ning WANG Zhengshi
From 2013 to 2014, the Glacial Geomorphology of the upper reaches of Heihe River in the late Quaternary was investigated and sampled. Based on the field investigation and remote sensing image, the distribution map of moraine at different levels near the ridge of the upper reaches of the Bailang river was obtained.
HU Xiaofei PAN Baotian
As an important parameter of permafrost research, the freezing-thawing index is of great significance to the research of permafrost, and it is also an important index for the research of climate change.The cumulative value of daily air temperature or surface soil temperature at a given time. This data is based on the daily surface temperature observation data of 15 regular meteorological stations in the heihe valley of China meteorological administration, and the annual surface freezing-thawing index of each meteorological station from 1960 to 2006 is calculated.
This data set includes the observation data of 40 water net sensor network nodes in Babao River Basin in the upper reaches of Heihe River since the end of June 2013. Soil moisture of 4cm, 10cm and 20cm is the basic observation of each node; 19 nodes include the observation of soil moisture and surface infrared radiation temperature; 11 nodes include the observation of soil moisture, surface infrared radiation temperature, snow depth and precipitation. The observation frequency is 5 minutes. The data set can be used for hydrological simulation, data assimilation and remote sensing verification.
JIN Rui KANG Jian LI Xin MA Mingguo
1. Data overview: this data set is the data set of artificial observation of frozen soil depth at Qilian station from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011, at 08:00 every day. 2. Data content: data content is frozen depth data set of permafrost. Frozen soil observation uses the frozen depth (length) of water poured into the rubber inner tube as a record. According to the position and length of water frozen in the permafrost buried in the soil, the frozen layer and its upper and lower limit depths are measured. In centimeters (CM), rounded to the nearest whole number. Observe once every day at 0.8 o'clock. 3. Space time scope: geographic coordinates: longitude: 99 ° 53 ′ E; latitude: 38 ° 16 ′ n; altitude: 2981.0m
HAN Chuntan SONG Yaoxuan LIU Junfeng YANG Yong QING Wenwu LIU Zhangwen
First, Data Description The data includes stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope data of snow melt water, river water and soil water from July 2013 to April 2014. Second, Sampling Sites The snowmelt water sampling point is located in the middle of the third area, with a latitude and longitude of 99°53′28.004′′E, 38°13′25.781′′N, and the number of acquisitions is 3 times; The river water sampling point is located at the exit of the Hulugou Basin, with a latitude and longitude of 99°52′47.7′′E, 38°16′11′′N, and the sampling frequency is once a week; The soil water sampling point is located in the middle and lower part of the Hongnigou catchment area, with a sampling depth of 90cm and 180cm underground, and a latitude and longitude of 99°52'25.98′′E, 38°15′36.11′′N. Third, Testing Method The samples were measured by L2130-i ultra-high precision liquid water and water vapor isotope analyzer.
CHANG Qixin SUN Ziyong
1、 Data Description: the data includes the content of silica in snowmelt water and soil water in hulugou small watershed from May 2013 to April 2014. 2、 Sampling location: the sampling point of snowmelt water is located near 600m below No.2 meteorological station, with ground elevation of 3514.45m, longitude and latitude of 99 ° 53 ′ 20.655 ″ e, 38 ° 14 ′ 14.987 ″ n. The sampling point of soil water is located at 300m above and below the No.2 meteorological station, with the longitude and latitude of 99 ° 53 ′ 31.333 ″ E and 38 ° 13 ′ 50.637 ″ n. 3、 Measurement method: the content of silica in the sample was measured by ICP-AES. Silicon dioxide is replaced by the value of Si in the solution.
SUN Ziyong CHANG Qixin
This data set includes the observation data of 40 water net sensor network nodes in Babao River Basin in the upper reaches of Heihe River since January 2014. Soil moisture of 4cm, 10cm and 20cm is the basic observation of each node; 19 nodes include the observation of soil moisture and surface infrared radiation temperature; 11 nodes include the observation of soil moisture, surface infrared radiation temperature, snow depth and precipitation. The observation frequency is 5 minutes. The data set can be used for hydrological simulation, data assimilation and remote sensing verification. Please refer to "waternet data document 20141206. Docx" for details
JIN Rui KANG Jian LI Xin MA Mingguo
"Heihe River Basin Ecological hydrological comprehensive atlas" is supported by the key project of Heihe River Basin Ecological hydrological process integration research. It aims at data arrangement and service of Heihe River Basin Ecological hydrological process integration research. The atlas will provide researchers with a comprehensive and detailed background introduction and basic data set of Heihe River Basin. The snow day map of Heihe River Basin is one of the hydrological and water resources in the atlas, with the scale of 1:2500000, the positive axis and equal volume conic projection, and the standard latitude of 25 47 n. Data source: this map shows the distribution of annual average snow days in 10 hydrological years in the whole Heihe River Basin from August 1, 2001 to July 31, 2011. The original data comes from MODIS daily snow products modisa 1 and myd10a1 provided by the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) of the United States, as well as the long-term series snow depth data set of China provided by the scientific data center for cold and dry regions (WESTDC).
WANG Jianhua ZHAO Jun WANG Xiaomin
The data set is the meteorological and observational data of hulugou shrub experimental area in the upper reaches of Heihe River, including meteorological data, albedo data and evapotranspiration data under shrubs. 1. Meteorological data: Qilian station longitude: 99 ° 52 ′ E; latitude: 38 ° 15 ′ n; altitude: 3232.3m, scale meteorological data from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013. Observation items include: temperature, humidity, vapor pressure, net radiation, four component radiation, etc. The data are daily scale data, and the calculation period is 0:00-24:00 2. Albedo: daily surface albedo data from January 1, 2012 to July 3, 2014, including snow and non snow periods. The measuring instrument is the radiation instrument on the 10m gradient tower in hulugou watershed. Among them, the data from August 4 to October 2, 2012 was missing due to instrument circuit problems, and the rest data quality was good 3. Evapotranspiration: surface evapotranspiration data of Four Typical Shrub Communities in hulugou watershed. The observation period is from July 18 to August 5, 2014, which is the daily scale data. The data include precipitation data, evaporation and infiltration data observed by lysimeter. The data set can be used to analyze the evapotranspiration data of alpine shrubs and forests. The evapotranspiration of grassland under canopy was measured by a small lysimeter with a diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm. Two lysimeters were set up in each shrub plot, and one lysimeter was set for each shrub in transplanting experiment. The undisturbed undisturbed soil column with the same height as the barrel is placed in the inner bucket, and the outer bucket is buried in the soil. During the embedding, the outer bucket shall be 0.5-1.0 cm higher than the ground, and the outer edge of the inner barrel shall be designed with a rainproof board about 2.0 cm wide to prevent surface runoff from entering the lysimeter. Lysimeter was set up in the nearby meteorological stations to measure grassland evapotranspiration, and a small lysimeter with an inner diameter of 25 cm and a depth of 30 cm was also set up in the sample plot of Picea crassifolia forest to measure the evaporation under the forest. All lysimeters are weighed at 20:00 every day (the electronic balance has a sensing capacity of 1.0 g, which is equivalent to 0.013 mm evaporation). Wind proof treatment should be taken to ensure the accuracy of measurement. Data processing method: evapotranspiration is mainly calculated by mass conservation in lysimeter method. According to the design principle of lysimeter lysimeter, evapotranspiration is mainly determined by the quality difference in two consecutive days. Since it is weighed every day, it is calculated by water balance.
SONG Yaoxuan LIU Zhangwen
1. Data overview: This data set is the data set of frozen depth of permafrost observed artificially in qilian station from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2013, and observed at 08 o 'clock every day. 2. Data content: The data content is the frozen depth data set of the tundra.The frozen depth (length) of the water in the inner rubber tube is used as a record to determine the freezing level and the upper and lower depth of the frozen layer according to the freezing position and length of the water in the frozen pot.In centimeters (cm), round off the whole number and round off the decimal.Observe once a day at 0:8. 3. Space and time range: Geographical coordinates: longitude: 99° 53’e;Latitude: 38°16 'N;Height: 2981.0 m
CHEN Rensheng HAN Chuntan SONG Yaoxuan LIU Junfeng YANG Yong LIU Zhangwen
1. Data overview: This data set is the data set of frozen depth of permafrost observed artificially in qilian station from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012, and observed at 08 o 'clock every day. 2. Data content: The data content is the frozen depth data set of the tundra.The frozen depth (length) of the water in the inner rubber tube is used as a record to determine the freezing level and the upper and lower depth of the frozen layer according to the freezing position and length of the water in the frozen pot.In centimeters (cm), round off the whole number and round off the decimal.Observe once a day at 0:8. 3. Space and time range: Geographical coordinates: longitude: 99° 53’e;Latitude: 38°16 'N;Height: 2981.0 m
CHEN Rensheng SONG Yaoxuan HAN Chuntan LIU Junfeng YANG Yong
This data is obtained by spatial interpolation and permafrost simulation through the surface temperature at 0 cm of nine stations in and outside the source area of the upper reaches of Heihe River. In the figure, 1 represents seasonal frozen soil and 2 represents permafrost. The data is in TIFF format, WGS-84 is used for projection, and the spatial range is 37.7263n-39.0976n, 98.5769e-101.1608e.
The dataset of ground truth measurements for snow synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands) mission was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 30, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters and properties, especially for dry and wet snow identification. Observation items included: (1) Snow density, snow complex permittivity, snow volumetric moisture and snow gravimetric moisture by the snowfork in BG-A; (2) Snow parameters including snow depth, the snow surface temperature synchronizing with the airborne microwave radiometers (K&Ka bands), the snow layer temperature, the snow grain size and snow density in BG-A (10 points), BG-B (6 points), BG-F (12 points), BG-H (21 points) and BG-I (20 points); For each snow pit, the snowpack was divided into several layers with 10-cm intervals of snow depth. The layer depth (by the ruler), the snow grain size (by the handheld microscope), snow density (by the cutting ring) and the snow temperature (by the probe thermometer) were obtained at each snow pit. Two files including raw data and the preprocessed data were archived.
GE Chunmei GU Juan HAO Xiaohua MA Mingguo WANG Jianhua WANG Xufeng LI Hua CHE Tao
The dataset of ground truth measurements synchronizing with Envisat ASAR was obtained in No.2 quadrate of the A'rou foci experimental area on Oct. 17, 2007 during the pre-observation period. The Envisat ASAR data were in AP mode and VV/VH polarization combinations, and the overpass time was approximately at 23:04 BJT. The quadrate was divided into 3×3 subsites, with each one spanning a 30×30 m2 plot. 25 sampling points were chosen, including centers and corners of each subsites. Simultaneous with the satellite overpass, numerous ground data were collected, soil volumetric moisture by ML2X; soil volumetric moisture, soil conductivity, soil temperature, and the real part of soil complex permittivity by WET soil moisture sensor; the surface radiative temperature by the hand-held infrared thermometer; soil gravimetric moisture, volumetric moisture, and soil bulk density after drying by the cutting ring (100cm^3). Meanwhile, vegetation parameters as height, coverage and water content were also observed. Surface roughness was detailed in the "WATER: Surface roughness dataset in the A'rou foci experimental area". Those provide reliable ground data for retrieval and validation of soil moisture and freeze/thaw status from active remote sensing approaches.
BAI Yunjie HAO Xiaohua JIN Rui LI Xin
The dataset of snow spectral reflectance observations was obtained in the Binggou watershed foci experimental area on Mar. 23, 2008. Flat open space was chosen for the observations and observation items included: (1) Multi-angle snow spectrum by the observation platform made by BNU for snow bidirectional reflectance properties from 10:50-13:50 BJT; (2) Snow albedo by the total radiometer for its relationship with the solar altitude from 10:00-14:36 BJT; (3) The snow spectrum by the portable ASD (Xinjiang Meteorological Administration). Two files including raw data and the preprocessed data were archived.
BAI Yunjie HAO Xiaohua MA Mingguo WANG Xufeng
The dataset of fresh snow properties observations was obtained at the temporary sampling plot in the Qilian county on Mar. 20, 2008. Those provide reliable data for retrieval of snow parameters from remote sensing approaches. Observation items included: (1) Snow parameters such as snow depth, snow grain size by the handheld microscope, and snow density by the snow shovel (2) Fresh snow albedo by the total radiometer (3) Fresh snow spectrum by ASD Two files including raw data and preprocessed data were archived.
GE Chunmei WANG Xufeng